Good Forestry in the Granite State:
Recommended Voluntary Forest Management Practices for New Hampshire
Table of Contents >>  Summary of Growth Rates and Yields of Common New Hampshire Forest Types << References>>

REFERENCES

Getting Started

Setting Objectives

McGuinn, B. 2002. Women and the Woods Curriculum. Unpublished report. University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension, Durham, N.H.

Forest Management Planning

N.H. Dept. of Revenue Administration. Current Use Criteria Booklet. http://extension.unh.edu/resources/resource/977/Current_Use_Criteria_Booklet Accessed May 27, 2010.

Estate Planning and Land Protection

Butler, B.J., and E.C. Leatherberry. 2004. America’s family forest owners. J. For. 102(7): 4-14. http://familyforestresearchcenter.org/publications/04familyforestowners.pdf Accessed March 12, 2010.

Silviculture

New Hampshire Forest Types

Sperduto, D. D., and William Nichols. 2004. Natural Communities of New Hampshire. N.H. Natural Heritage Bureau, Concord, N.H. http://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource000425_Rep447.pdf Accessed March 12, 2010.

Regeneration: The Right Tree on the Right Site

Frank, R.M., and J.C. Bjorkbom. 1973. A Silvicultural Guide for Spruce-Fir in the Northeast. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-6. 29 p.

Johnson, P.S. 1993. Perspectives on the Ecology and Silviculture of Oak-Dominated Forests in the Central and Eastern States. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-153. 28 p.

Lancaster, K.F., and W.B. Leak. 1978. A Silvicultural Guide for White Pine in the Northeast. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-41. 13 p.

Leak, W.B., D.S. Solomon, and P.S. DeBald. 1987. Silvicultural Guide for Northern Hardwood Types in the Northeast (revised). USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. NE-603. 36 p.

Leak, W.B. 1988. Effects of Weed Species on Northern Hardwood Regeneration in New Hampshire. North. J. Appl. For. 5(4):235-237.

Leak, W.B., and N.L. Lamson. 1999. Revised white pine stocking guide for managed stands. USDA For. Serv. NA—State and Private Forestry. NA-TP-01-99. 2 p.

Managing for High-Value Trees

Bennett, K. P. 2006. Forest Land Enhancement Program (FLEP) Handbook. UNH Cooperative Extension, Durham, N.H. 48 p.

Bennett, K.P., and K. Desmarais (eds.). 2003. Managing white pine in a new millennium: 2003 workshop proceedings. UNH Cooperative Extension, Durham, N.H. 78 p.

Frank, R.M., and J.C. Bjorkbom. 1973. A Silvicultural Guide for Spruce-Fir in the Northeast. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-6. 29 p.

Kittredge, D. B. 1988. The influence of species composition on the growth of individual red oaks in mixed stands in southern New England, U.S.A. Can. J. For. Res. 18(12): 1550-1555.

Leak, W.B., D.S. Solomon, and P.S. DeBald. 1987. Silvicultural Guide for Northern Hardwood Types in the Northeast (revised). USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. NE-603. 36 p.

Oliver, C., and B. Larson. 1996. Forest Stand Dynamics. Upd. Sub. edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 544 p.

Sendak, P.E., and W.B. Leak. 2008. Early Crop-Tree Release and Species Cleaning in Young Northern Hardwoods: A Financial Analysis. USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. NRS-6. 13 p.

Seymour, R.S. 2003. Low-density management of white pine crop trees: A primer and short-term research results. P. 41-48 in Managing White Pine in a New Millennium: 2003 Workshop Proceedings. UNH Cooperative Extension, Durham, N.H. 78 p.

Smith, D. 1986. The Practice of Silviculture (8th edition). John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 544 p.

Solomon, D.S., D.A. Herman, and W.B. Leak. 1995. Fiber 3.0: An Ecological Growth Model for Northeastern Forest Types. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-204. 24 p.

Trimble, G.R. Jr., J.J. Mendel, and R.A. Kennell. 1974. A Procedure for Selection Marking in Hardwoods. USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. NE-292. 13 p.

Timber Harvesting

Soil Productivity

Hornbeck, J.W., C.T. Smith, Q. W. Martin, L.M Tritton, and R.S. Pierce. 1990. Effects of Intensive Harvesting on Nutrient Capital of Three Forest Types in New England. For. Ecol. Manage. 30(1-4): 55-64.

Hornbeck, J.W., R.B. Smith, and C.A. Federer. 1988. Growth Trends in 10 Species of Trees in New England, 1950-1980. Can. J. For. Res. 18(10): 1337-1340.

Johnson, C.E., R.B. Romanowicz, and T.G. Siccama. 1997. Conservation of Exchangeable Cations After Clear-cutting of a Northern Hardwood Forest. Can. J. For. Res. 27(6):859-868.

Leak, W.B. 2007. Thinning Northern Hardwoods in New England by Dominant-Tree Removal — Early Results. North. J. Appl. For. 24(4):312-313.

Likens, G.E., C.T. Driscoll, and D.C. Buso. 1996. Long-term Effects of Acid Rain: Response and Recovery of a Forest Ecosystem. Science 272(5259): 244-246.

Pierce, R.S., J. W. Hornbeck, C.W. Martin, L.M. Tritton, C.T. Smith, C.A. Federer, and H.W. Yawney. 1993. Whole-tree Clearcutting in New England: Manager's Guide to Impacts on Soils, Streams, and Regeneration. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-172. 271 p.

Water Resources

Water Quality

N.H. Dept. of Environmental Services. 2007 Discharges of Oil Requiring Immediate Notification. N.H. Code of Administrative Rules Env-Or 604. NHDES, Concord, N.H.

Wetlands

Ammann, A.P., and A. Lindley Stone. 1991. Method for the Comparative Evaluation of Nontidal Wetlands in New Hampshire. NHDES-WRD-1991-3. N.H. Dept. of Environmental Services, Concord, N.H. 97 p.

DeGraaf, R.M., M. Yamasaki, W.B. Leak, and J.W. Lanier. 1992. New England Wildlife: Management of Forested Habitats. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-144. 271 p.

Hunter, M.L., Jr. 1990. Wildlife, Forests and Forestry: Principles of Managing Forests for Biological Diversity. Prentice-Hall, New York, N.Y. 370 p.

Riparian Areas

Blinn, C.R., and M.A. Kilgore. 2001. Riparian Management Practices: A Summary of State Guidelines. J. For. 99(8)11-17.

DeGraaf, R.M., and M. Yamasaki. 2000. Bird and mammal habitat in riparian areas. P.139-156 in Verry, E.S., J.W. Hornbeck, and C.A. Dolloff (eds.). 2000. Riparian Management in Forests of the Continental Eastern United States. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Fla.

DeGraaf, R.M., and M. Yamasaki. 2001. New England Wildlife: Habitat, Natural History, and Distribution. University Press of New England, Lebanon, N.H. 482 p.

Elliott, C.A. 1988. A Forester's Guide to Managing Wildlife Habitats in Maine. University of Maine Cooperative Extension Service, Orono, Maine. 46 p.

Elliott, C.A. 1994. Managing Riparian Habitat for Songbirds, Raptors and Small Mammals. P. 71-82 in proceedings of the Symposium on Riparian Zone Management. Canadian Forest Service. R&D Report No. 9, Fredericton, New Brunswick.

Gomi, T., R.C. Sidle, and J.S. Richardson. 2002. Understanding Processes and Downstream Linkages of Headwater Streams. Bioscience 52(10):905-916.

Hagan, J. and A. Whitman. 2000. Rate of Stream Water Warming in Buffered-Clearcut and Intact-Forest Streams in Western Maine in proceedings of Forestry in the Riparian Zone. Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, Brunswick, Maine.

Hunter, M.L., Jr. 1990. Wildlife, Forests and Forestry: Principles of Managing Forests for Biological Diversity. Prentice-Hall, New York, N.Y. 370 p.

Jones, J.J., J.P. Lortie, and U.D. Pierce, Jr. 1988. The Identification and Management of Significant Fish and Wildlife Resources in Southern Coastal Maine. Maine Dept. of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife, Augusta, Maine.

Lee, P., C. Smyth, and S. Boutin. 2004. Quantitative review of riparian buffer width guidelines from Canada and the United States. J. Environ. Manage. 70(2): 165–180.

Loftin, C.S., M.S. Bank, J.M. Hagan, and D. Siegel. 2001. Literature Synthesis of the Effects of Forest Management Activities on Riparian and In-Stream Biota of New England. University of Maine Cooperative Forestry and Research Unit. RR 01-01. 78 p.

Meiklejohn, B.A. 1994. The Value of Buffer Strips as Riparian Habitat in Northern Forests. M.Sc. thesis, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 41 p.

Naiman, R.J., and J.J. Latterell. 2005. Principles for linking fish habitat to fisheries management and conservation. J. Fish Biol. 67 (Supplement B): 166–185.

Trout Unlimited. 2005. Riparian Buffer and Watershed Management Recommendations for Brook Trout Habitat Conservation. Focus: Mountainous Brook Trout Watersheds of Maine and Northern New Hampshire. Prepared by Kleinschmidt Associates, Pittsfield, Maine.

Stream Crossings and Habitat

Fahrig L., and G. Merriam. 1985. Habitat patch connectivity and population survival. Ecology 66(6):1762-1768.

Jackson, S.D. 2003. Ecological considerations in the design of river and stream crossings. P. 20-29 in proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, C.L. Irwin, P. Garrett, and K.P. McDermott, (eds.). Center for Transportation and the Environment, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C.

Stream and Wetland Restoration Institute. 2009. New Hampshire Stream Crossings Guidelines. University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H. 48 p.

Maine Forest Service. 2008. Maine Forestry Best Management Practices: Use and Effectiveness, 2006--2007. Maine For. Serv. Dept. of Conservation, Augusta, Maine. 24 p.

Forest Health

Insects and Diseases

Houseweart, M.W., and F.B. Knight. 1986. Entomological Problems in Growing White Pine. P. 88-92 in proceedings of Eastern White Pine: Today and Tomorrow. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-51. 124 p.

Houston, D.R. 1983. American Beech Resistance to Cryptococcus fagisuga. In proceedings of IUFRO Beech Bark Disease Working Party Conference. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-37. 140 p.

Jennings, D.T., and H.S. Crawford, Jr. 1985. Spruce Budworm Handbook—Predators of the Spruce Budworm. USDA For. Serv. Coop. State Res. Serv. Agriculture Handbook 644. 77 p.

Invasive Plants

Frappier, B., R.T. Eckert, and T.D. Lee. 2003. Potential impacts of the invasive exotic shrub Rhamnus frangula L. (glossy buckthorn) on forests of southern New Hampshire. Northeast. Nat. 10(3):277-296.

National Invasive Species Council. 2001. Management plan: meeting the invasive species challenge. http://www.invasivespecies.gov/ Accessed January 21, 2010.

National Invasive Species Information Center. http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/plants/main.shtml Accessed January 21, 2010.

New England Wild Flower Society. 1998. Invaders. New England Wild Flower: Conservation Notes of the New England Wildflower Society. Framingham, Mass. 30 p.

Logging Damage

Hesterberg, G.A. 1957. Deterioration of Sugar Maple Following Logging Damage. USDA Forest Service Lakes States Experiment Station. Station Paper 51. 58 p.

Cline, M.L., B.F. Hoffman, M. Cyr, and W. Bragg. 1991. Stand Damage Following Whole-Tree Partial Cutting in Northern Forests. North. J. Appl. For. 8(2): 72-76.

Nyland, R.D., and W.J. Gabriel. 1971. Logging Damage to Partially Cut Hardwood Stands in New York State. State University College of Forestry, Applied Forestry Research Institute. Res. Rep. 5. 78 p.

Ostrofsky, W. 1988. Health of Forests in Relation to Timber Management Practices. P. 49-56 in New Perspectives on Silvicultural Management of Northern Hardwoods, USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-124.

Weinsauer, J., and J.P. Mattson. 1986. Harvesting Alternatives for Thinning Northern Hardwoods. P. 223-241 in Managing Northern Hardwoods: Proceedings of a Silvicultural Symposium. State University of New York, Syracuse, N.Y.

Wildlife Habitat

Mast

Burns, R.M., and B. H. Honkala. 1990. Silvics of North America, Volume 2: Hardwoods. USDA For. Serv. Agriculture Handbook 654, Washington, D.C. 877 p.

White, D. W. 1989. North American bird-dispersed fruits: ecological and adaptive significance of nutritional and structural traits. Ph.D. thesis, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.

White, D. W., and E. W. Stiles. 1992. Bird dispersal of fruits of species introduced into eastern North America. Can. J. Botany. 70:1689-1696.

Cavity Trees, Dens and Snags

Hardin, K.I., and K.E. Evans. 1977. Cavity Nesting Bird Habitat in the Oak-Hickory Forest—A Review. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-30.

Harrison, H.H. 1975. A Field Guide to Birds' Nests in the United States East of the Mississippi. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass.

Healy, W.M., R.T. Brooks, and R.M. DeGraaf. 1989. Cavity trees in sawtimber size oak stands in central Massachusetts. North. J. Appl. For. 6(2): 61-65.

Tubbs, C.H., R.M. DeGraaf, M. Yamasaki, and W.M. Healy. 1987. Guide to Wildlife Tree Management in New England Northern Hardwoods. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-118. 30 p.

Yamasaki, M., and W.B. Leak. 2006. Snag longevity in managed northern hardwoods. North. J. Appl. For. 23(3): 215-217.

Dead and Down Woody Material

Hagan, J. M., and S.L. Grove. 1999. Coarse Woody Debris: Humans and Nature Competing for Trees. J. For. 97(1):6-1.

Harmon, M.E., J.F. Franklin, F.J. Swanson, P. Sollins, S.V. Gregory, J.D. Lattin, N.H. Anderson, S.P. Cline, N.G. Aumen, J.R. Sedell, G.W. Lienkaemper, K. Cromack, Jr., and K.W. Cummins. 1986. Ecology of Coarse Woody Debris in Temperate Ecosystems. Adv. Ecol. Res. 15: 133-302.

Permanent Openings

Chandler, R.B., D.I. King, and S. DeStefano. 2009. Scrub-shrub bird habitat associations at multiple spatial scales in beaver meadows in Massachusetts. The Auk 126(1): 186–197.

Costello, C.A., M. Yamasaki, P.J. Pekins, W.B. Leak, and C.D. Neefus. 2000. Songbird response to group selection harvests and clearcuts in a New Hampshire northern hardwood forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 127(1-3): 41–54.

DeGraaf, R.M., and M. Yamasaki. 2003. Options for managing early-successional forest and shrubland bird habitats in the northeastern United States. For. Ecol. Manage. 185(1-2): 179–191.

Schlossberg, S., and D.I. King. 2007. Ecology and management of scrub-shrub birds in New England: a comprehensive review. Report submitted to USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Resource Inventory and Assessment Division. 120 p.

Temporary Openings Created by Forest Management

Brooks, R.T., 2003. Abundance, distribution, trends, and ownership patterns of early successional forests in the northeastern United States. For. Ecol. Manage. 185(1-2): 65-74.

Chandler, R.B., D.I. King, and S. DeStefano. 2009. Scrub-shrub bird habitat associations at multiple spatial scales in beaver meadows in Massachusetts. The Auk 126(1): 186–197.

Costello, C.A., M. Yamasaki, P.J. Pekins, W.B. Leak, and C.D. Neefus. 2000. Songbird response to group selection harvests and clearcuts in a New Hampshire northern hardwood forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 127(1-3): 41–54.

DeGraaf, R.M. 1991. Breeding bird assemblages in managed northern hardwood forests in New England. P. 153-171 in Wildlife and habitats in managed landscapes, J.E. Rodiek and E.G. Bolen (eds.). Island Press, Washington, D.C. 238 p.

DeGraaf, R.M., and M. Yamasaki. 2003. Options for managing early-successional forest and shrubland bird habitats in the northeastern United States. For. Ecol. Manage. 185(1-2): 179–191.

King, D.I., R.B. Chandler, S. Schlossberg, and C.C. Chandler. 2009. Habitat use and nest success of scrub-shrub birds in wildlife and silvicultural openings in western Massachusetts, USA. For. Ecol. Manage. 257(2): 421–426.

Leak, W.B., D.S. Solomon, and P.S. DeBald. 1987. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwood types in the Northeast (revised). USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. NE-603. 36 p.

Schlossberg, S., and D.I. King. 2007. Ecology and management of scrub-shrub birds in New England: A comprehensive review. Report submitted to USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Resource Inventory and Assessment Division. 120 p.

Schlossberg, S., and D.I. King. 2008. Are shrubland birds edge specialists? Ecol. Appl. 18(6): 1325–1330.

Schlossberg, S., and D.I. King. 2009. Postlogging succession and habitat usage of shrubland birds. J. Wildl. Manage. 73(2): 226–231.

Thompson, F.R. III, and R.M. DeGraaf. 2001. Conservation approaches for woody, early successional communities in the eastern United States. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 29(2): 483-494.

Trani, M.K., R.T.Brooks, T.L. Schmidt, V.A. Rudis, and C.M. Gabbard. 2001. Patterns and trends of early successional forests in the eastern United States. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 29(2): 413-424.

Aspen Management

Bates, P. C., C. R. Blinn, and A. A. Alm. 1991. Regenerating quaking aspen: management recommendations. Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota. 7 p.

Frieswyk, T., and R. Widmann. 2000. Forest statistics for New Hampshire: 1983 and 1997. USDA For. Serv. Res. Bull. NE-146. 130 p.

Perala, D.A. 1977. Manager's Handbookfor Aspen in the North-Central States. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-36. 30 p.

Beaver-Created Openings

Buech, R.R. 1985. Beaver in Water Impoundments: Understanding a Problem of Water-level Management. P. 95-105 in Water Impoundments for Wildlife: a Habitat Management Workshop, D.M. Knighton (ed.). USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-100.

Chandler, R. B., D. I. King, and S. DeStefano. 2009. Scrub-shrub bird habitat associations at multiple spatial scales in beaver meadows in Massachusetts. The Auk 126(1):186-197.

Diefenbach, D.R., S.J. Lovett, and R.B. Owens, Jr. 1988. Beavers and Wetlands. P. 38-40 in A Forester's Guide to Managing Wildlife Habitats in Maine, C.A. Elliott (ed.). University of Maine Cooperative Extension and Maine Chapter of The Wildlife Society, Orono, Maine.

Hill, E.P. 1982. Beaver: Castor canadensis. P. 256-281 in Wild Mammals of North America—Biology, Management, and Economics, J.A. Chapman, and G.A. Feldhamer (eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md.

Deer Wintering Areas

Alexander, C.E., and L.E. Garland. 1985. Spruce Budworm/Deer Winter Range: A Situation Statement. P. 211-216 in Conference on Spruce-Fir Management and Spruce Budworm. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-99.

Beier, P., and D. R. McCullough. 1990. Factors influencing white-tailed deer activity patterns and habitat use. Wildl. Monographs 109:3-51.

Broadfoot, J. D., D. R. Voigt, and T. J. Bellhouse. 1996. White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer dispersion areas in Ontario. Can. Field Nat. 110(2): 298-302.

Frank, R. M., and J. C. Bjorkbom. 1973. A silvicultural guide for spruce-fir in the northeast. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-6. 29 p.

Maine Dept. of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife. 1993. General guidelines for the management of P-FW and P-4 deer wintering areas in the jurisdiction of the land use regulation commission. MDIFW. Augusta, Maine. 10 p.

Rongstad, O. J., and J. R. Tester. 1969. Movements and habitat use of white-tailed deer in Minnesota. J. Wildl. Manage. 33(2): 366-379.

Tierson, W. C., G. F. Mattfeld, R. W. Sage, Jr., and D. E. Behrend. 1985. Seasonal movements and home range of white-tailed deer in the Adirondacks. J. Wildl. Manage. 49(3): 760-769.

Woodland Raptors

Craighead, J.J., and F.C. Craighead, Jr. 1956. Hawks, owls and wildlife. Stackpole Co., Harrisburg, Pa. 443 p.

Farmer, C.J., L.J. Goodrich, E.R. Inzunza, and J.P. Smith. 2008. Conservation status of North America’s birds of prey. P. 303-420 in State of North America’s Birds of Prey, K.L. Bildstein, J.P. Smith, E.R. Inzunza, and R.R. Veit (eds.). American Ornithologists’ Union/Nuttall Ornithological Club. 466 p.

Fyfe, R.W., and R.R. Olendorff. 1976. Minimizing the dangers of nesting studies to raptors and other sensitive species. Can. Wildl. Serv. Occas. Pap. No. 23. Information Canada, Catalogue No. CW69-1/23.

Houston, C. S., D.G. Smith, and C. Rohner. 1998. Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). In The Birds of North America Online, A. Poole (ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, N.Y. http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/372 Accessed February 23, 2010.

Johnsgard, P.A. 1988. North American Owls. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Johnsgard, P.A. 1990. Hawks, Eagles, and Falcons of North America. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Lanier, J., and R.M. Bollengier. 1994. Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). P. 60-61 in Atlas of Breeding Birds in New Hampshire, C.R. Foss (ed.).Arcadia Press, Dover, N.H.

N.H. Fish and Game Dept. 2005. New Hampshire Wildlife Action Plan. N.H. Fish and Game, Concord, N.H.

Rosenfield, R.N., J.W. Grier, and R.W. Fyfe. 2007. Reducing management and research disturbance. P. 351-364 in Raptor Research and Management Techniques, D.M. Bird, and K.L. Bildstein (eds.). Hancock House Publishers. Blaine, Wash.

Speiser, R. 1993. Use of landmarks in nest site selection by woodland raptors. Records of New Jersey Birds 19:2-5.

Trexel, D.R., R.N. Rosenfield, J. Bielefeldt, and E.A. Jacobs. 1999. Comparative nest site habitats in sharp-shinned and Cooper’s hawks in Wisconsin. Wilson Bulletin 111: 7-14.

Bald Eagle Winter Roosts

Grier, J.W., F.J. Gramlich, J. Mattson, J.E. Mathison, J.V. Kussman, J.B. Elder, and N.F. Green. 1983. Northern States Bald Eagle Recovery Plan. USDI Fish and Wildl. Serv. Minneapolis, Minn. 121 p.

Snow, C. 1973. Habitat Management Series for Endangered Species: Report No. 5. Southern Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus and Northern Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus. USDI Bureau of Land Management Tech. Note TN-17.

Heron Colonies

Elkins, K.C., and E.F. Swift. 1994. Great blue heron (Ardea herodias). Page 8 in Atlas of breeding birds in New Hampshire, C.R. Foss (ed.). Arcadia. Dover, N.H.

Gibb, J.P., S. Woodward, M.L. Hunter, Jr., and A.E. Hutchinson. 1987. Determinants of great blue heron colony distribution in coastal Maine. The Auk 104(1): 38-47.

Simpson, K., J.N.M. Smith, and J.P. Kelsall. 1987. Correlates and consequences of coloniality in great blue herons. Can. J. Zoolog. 65(3): 572-577.

Vennesland, R.G. 2010. Risk perception of nesting Great Blue Herons: experimental evidence of habituation. Can. J. Zoolog. 88(9): 81-89.

Watts, B.D., and D.S. Bradshaw. 1994. The influence of human disturbance on the location of great blue heron colonies in the lower Chesapeake region. Colonial Waterbirds 17(2): 184-186.

Sensitive Areas

Natural Communities and Protected Plants

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. 1995. The Small Whorled Pogonia: A Recovering Endangered Species. USDI Fish and Wildl. Serv. Bethesda, Md. 8 p.

Seeps

Meisner, J.D., J.S. Rosenfeld, and H.A. Regier. 1988. The Role of Groundwater in the Impact of Climate Warming on Stream Salmonines. Fisheries. 13(3): 2-8.

Whitlock, A. L., N.M. Jarman, and J.S. Larson. 1994. Habitat Assessment Procedures for Wetland-Dependent Amphibians, Reptiles, and Mammals. The Environmental Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. 595 p.

Vernal Pools

Babbitt, K.J., M. Baber, and T.L. Tarr. 2003. Patterns of larval amphibian distribution along a wetland hydroperiod gradient. Can. J. Zoolog. 81(9): 1539-1552.

Baldwin, R.F., A.J.K. Calhoun, and P.G. deMaynadier. 2006. The significance of hydroperiod and stand maturity for pool-breeding amphibians in forested landscapes. Can. J. Zoolog. 84(11): 1604-1615.

Baldwin, R.F., A.J.K. Calhoun, and P.G. deMaynadier. 2006. Conservation planning for amphibian species with complex habitat requirements: a case study using movements and habitat selection of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica). J. Herpetol. 40(4): 442-453.

Broadmeadow, S., and T.R. Nisbet. 2004. The effects of riparian forest management on the freshwater environment: a literature review of best management practice. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sc. 8(3): 286-305.

deMaynadier, P.G., and M.L. Hunter, Jr. 2000. Road effects on amphibian movements in a forested landscape. Nat. Area. J.20(1): 56-65.

deMaynadier, P.G., and J. Houlahan. 2008. Conserving Vernal Pool Amphibians in Managed Forests. In Science and Conservation of Vernal Pools in Northeastern North America, A.J.K. Calhoun and P.G. deMaynadier (eds.). CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla.

Harper, E.B., T.A.G. Rittenhouse, and R.D. Semlitsch. 2008. Demographic consequences of terrestrial habitat loss for pool-breeding amphibians: predicting extinction risks associated with inadequate size of buffer zones. Conserv. Biol. 22(5): 1205-1215.

Herrmann, H.L., K.J. Babbitt, M.J. Baber, and R.G. Congalton. 2005. Effects of landscape characteristics on amphibian distribution in a forest-dominated landscape. Biol. Conserv. 123(2):139-149.

Innes, R.J., K.J. Babbitt, and J.J. Kanter. 2008. Home range and movement of Blanding’s turtles (Emydoidea blandingii) in New Hampshire. Northeast. Nat. 15(3): 431-444.

Joyal, L.A., M. McCollough, and M.L. Hunter, Jr. 2001. Landscape ecology approaches to wetland species conservation: a case study of two turtle species in southern Maine. Conserv. Biol. 15(6):1755-1762.

Morris, K.M., and T.J. Maret. 2007. Effects of timber management on pond-breeding salamanders. J. Wildl. Manage. 71(4): 1034-1041.

Patrick, D.A., M.L. Hunter, Jr., and A.J.K Calhoun. 2006. Effects of experimental forestry treatments on a Maine amphibian community. For. Ecol. Manage. 234(1-3): 323-332.

Roble, S.M., and D.B. Kittredge, Jr. 1991. Protection of Vernal Pools During Timber Harvesting. The Northern Logger and Timber Processor. May: 6-7.

Rothermel, B.B., and T.M. Luhring. 2005. Burrow availability and desiccation risk of mole salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum) in harvested versus unharvested forest stands. J. Herpetol. 39(4): 619-626.

Russell, K.R., H.G. Hanlin, T.B. Wigley, and D.C. Guynn. 2002. Responses of isolated wetland herpetofauna to upland forest management. J. Wildl. Manage. 66(3): 603-617.

Semlitsch, R.D., and J.R. Bodie. 2003. Biological criteria for buffer zones around wetlands and riparian habitats for amphibians and reptiles. Conserv. Biol. 17(5): 1219-1228.

Smith, M.A., and D.M. Green. 2005. Dispersal and the metapopulation paradigm in amphibian ecology and conservation: are all amphibian populations metapopulations? Ecography 28(1):110-128.

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Zamudio, K.R., and A.M. Wieczorek. 2007. Fine-scale genetic structure and dispersal among spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) breeding populations. Mol. Ecol. 16: 257-274.

Pine Barrens

Dacey, C. 2003. Vegetation of the Ossipee Pine Barrens Preserve: Description, Classification and Successional Trends. M. Sc. thesis, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt.

Finton, A.D. 1998. Succession and plant community development in pitch pine-scrub oak barrens of the glaciated northeast United States. M. Sc. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass.

Howard, L. 2003. Factors affecting plant community composition and dynamics in the Ossipee Pine Barrens, New Hampshire. Ph.D. thesis, University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H.

Hunt, P. 2008. Northeast Nightjar Survey: 2008 Summary and 2007 Data Analysis. NH Audubon, Concord, N.H.

Lougee, J. 2005. Vegetation, Landcover, and Fuel Mapping of the Ossipee Pine Barrens, Carroll County, New Hampshire. The Nature Conservancy Northern New Hampshire Program, North Conway, N.H.

Wagner, D.L., M.W. Nelson, and D.F. Schweitzer. 2003. Shrubland Lepidoptera of southern New England and southeastern New York: ecology, conservation and management. For. Ecol. Manage. 185(1-2): 95-112.

Old-Growth Forests

Davis, M.B. (ed.).1996. Eastern Old-Growth Forests: Prospects for Rediscovery and Recovery. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 400 p.

Luyssaert, S., E.Detlef Schulze, A. Borner, A. Knohl, D. Hessenmoller, B.E. Law, P. Ciais, and J. Grace. 2008. Old growth forests as global carbon sinks. Nature 455:213-215.

Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Management. Old Growth Policy. Division of Forests and Parks, Bureau of Forestry. http://www.mass.gov/dcr/stewardship/forestry/docs/oldgrwpol.pdf Accessed March 8, 2010.

High-Elevation Forests

Coos County Unincorporated Places. 1991. Zoning Ordinances.

Foss, C.R. (ed.). 1994. Atlas of Breeding Birds of New Hampshire. Arcadia. Dover, N.H.

Freedman, B. 1995. Environmental Ecology: the Ecological Effects of Pollution, Disturbance, and Other Stresses. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif.

Lambert, J. D., K.P. McFarland, C.C. Rimmer, S.D. Faccio and J.L. Atwood. 2005. A practical model of Bicknell’s thrush distribution in the northeastern United States. The Wilson Bulletin 117(1):1-11.

Kelly, J. R. 2005. Recent distribution of American marten in New Hampshire, and potential factors impacting distribution and habitat. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass.

N.H. Fish and Game Dept. 2006. Fresh tracks indicate rare Canada lynx “just passing through” Jefferson, N.H. http://www.wildlife.state.nh.us/Newsroom/News_2006/News_2006_Q1/Lynx_tracks_found_020106.htm. Accessed December 23, 2009.

USDI Fish and Wildlife Service. The Canada Lynx. http://library.fws.gov/Pubs/lynx.pdf. Accessed December 23, 2009.

Steep Slopes

Ochterski, J., 2004. Best Management Practices During a Timber Harvest. Cornell Cooperative Extension. http://www2.dnr.cornell.edu/ext/bmp/contents/during/dur_roads.htm. Accessed June 2, 2010.

Kittredge, D.B. Jr., and M. Parker. 1999. Massachusetts Forestry Best Management Practices Manual. Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Protection and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 56 p.

New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation. 2010. Timber Harvesting Guidelines. http://www.dec.ny.gov/lands/5240.html Accessed June 3, 2010.

Forest Products

Timber Products

N.H. Dept. of Revenue Administration Average Stumpage Prices. http://www.nh.gov/revenue/munc_prop/avgstumpval.htm Accessed June 3, 2010.

Davis, L.S., K. N. Johnson, and K.P. Davis. 1987. Forest Management. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 790 p.

Frank, R.M., and B.M. Blum. 1978. The Selection System of Silviculture in Spruce-Fir Stands—Procedures, Early Results, and Comparisons with Unmanaged Stands. USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. NE-425. 20 p.

Hornbeck, J.W., and W.B. Leak. 1992. Ecology and management of northern hardwood forests in New England. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-159. 44 p.

Marquis, D.A. 1969. Thinning in Young Northern Hardwoods: 5-Year Results. USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. NE-139. 22 p.

Moser, John W. Jr.1989. Introduction to Forest Growth and Yield. In Central Hardwood Notes. USDA For. Serv. North Central Forest Experiment Station. Note 5.01.

Sampson, T.L. 1983. A stocking guide for northern red oak in New England. M. Sc. thesis, University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H.

Solomon, D.S. 1977. The Influence of Stand Density and Structure on Growth of Northern Hardwoods in New England. USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. NE-362. 13 p.

Solomon, D.S., D.A. Herman, and W.B. Leak. 1995. Fiber 3.0: An Ecological Growth Model for Northeastern Forest Types. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-204. 24 p.

Solomon, D. S., and W.B. Leak. Growth and stocking of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in New England. P. 43-49 in proceedings of Symposium on Sustainable Management of Hemlock Ecosystems in Eastern North America, K.A. McManus, K.S.Shields, and D.R. Souto (eds.). USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-267.

Steinman, J.R. 1992. A comprehensive evaluation of spruce-fir growth and yield in Maine as related to physical and chemical soil properties. Ph.D. thesis, University of Maine, Orono, Maine.

Ward, J.S. 2002. Crop Tree Release Increases Growth of Mature Red Oak Sawtimber. North. J. Appl. For. 19(4):149-154.

Glossary

Helms, John A. editor. 1998. The Dictionary of Forestry. The Society of American Foresters. Bethesda, Md. 210 p.

Matlack, G.R. and J.A. Litvaitis. 1999. Forest Edges. P. 210-233 in Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems, M.L. Hunter (ed.). Cambridge University Press, New York, N.Y.

Sperduto, D. D., and William Nichols. 2004. Natural Communities of New Hampshire. N.H. Natural Heritage Bureau, Concord, N.H. http://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource000425_Rep447.pdf Accessed March 12, 2010.

References Used Throughout the Book

Helms, John A. editor. 1998. The Dictionary of Forestry. The Society of American Foresters. Bethesda, Md. 210 p.

N.H. Fish and Game Dept. Species Occurring in New Hampshire (Residents and Visitors). http://www.wildlife.state.nh.us/Wildlife/Nongame/species_list.htm Accessed June 3, 2010.