New Hampshire’s Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines with Wildlife Value [chart]

Mountain Ash

This chart includes native plant species, fruiting period, wildlife use, and the wildlife species use a particular native plant. 

Plants Included in the Chart 

Trees- Fruiting Period, Wildlife Use, Wildlife Using Plant For Food

  • Common Apple,  Malus pumila, non- native
    • September- March
    • Fruit, twigs, buds, and bark. Excellent winter food
    • Preferred by ruffed grouse, pine grosbeak, and cedar waxwing. Also consumed by wild turkey, ring-necked pheasant, various songbirds (purple finch eat spring buds), deer, rabbits, and red and gray fox
  • Mountain Ash, Sorbus americana
    • August- March
    • Fruit and twigs. Fast growing tree. Excellent winter food.
    • Wild turkey, catbird, cedar waxwing, bluebird, robin, thrushes, mockingbird, brown thrasher, and bear
  • Big-toothed Aspen, Populus grandidentala
    • May- June
    • Buds, catkins, twigs and foliage. Fair winter food.r food.
    • Catkins preferred by ruffed grouse. Yellow-bellied sapsucker, black-capped chickadee, evening grosbeak, purple finch, squirrel, and browsed by deer.
  • Quaking Aspen, Populus tremuloides
    • May - June
    • Buds, catkins, bark, twigs, and foliage. Excellent winter food.
    • Preferred by ruffed grouse and browsed on by deer, snowshoe hare, beaver and porcupine
  • American Beech, Fagus grandifolia
    • September - November
    • Nuts. Good winter food
    • Deer, bear, tufted titmouse, preferred by ruffed grouse, wild turkey, fox, porcupine, squirrel, chipmunk, and snowshoe hare
  • Yellow Birch, Betula allegheniensis
    • September - February
    • Catkins, bud, bark, twigs, and foliage. Good winter food
    • Ruffed grouse, common redpoll, pine siskins, black-capped chickadee, deer, snowshoe hare, beaver, porcupine and other various songbirds
  • Butternut, Juglans cinerea
    • September - November
    • Nuts. Good winter food
    • Preferred by black-capped chickadee, tufted titmouse, nuthatches, yellow-rumped warbler, pine warbler, purple finch, and field sparrow. Nuts also eaten by squirrels
  • Eastern Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana
    • September - March
    • Seeds and foliage. Fair winter food and excellent winter cover.
    • Wild turkey, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, northern flicker, phoebe, tree swallow, mockingbird, catbird, brown thrasher, robin, bluebird, cedar waxwing, yellow-rumped warbler, grosbeaks, purple finch, deer, squirrels. Used for nesting and cover by many species.
  • Atlantic White Cedar, Thuja occidentalis
    • September - March
    • Seeds and foliage. Fair winter food and excellent winter cover
    • Pine siskin, deer, and snowshoe hare. hare
  • Black Cherry, Prunus serotina
    • June - October
    • Fruits and buds. Excellent summer wildlife food.
    • Preferred by ruffed grouse, northern flicker, yellow-bellied sapsucker, eastern kingbird, blue jay, common crow, mockingbird, catbird, brown thrasher, robin, thrushes, veery, bluebird, cedar waxwing, vireo, orchard and northern oriole, tanager, cardinal, rose-breasted and evening grosbeaks, and white-throated sparrow.
  • Choke Cherry, Prunus virginiana
    • July - October
    • Fruits and buds. Excellent summer food
    • Preferred by ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, pileated woodpecker, yellow-bellied sapsucker, eastern kingbird, common crow, thrushes, robin, catbird, brown thrasher, bluebird, and evening and rose-breasted grosbeaks​​​​​​​
  • Pin Cherry, Prunus pensylvanica
    • ​​​​​​​July - December
    • Fruits and buds. Excellent summer food.
    • Preferred by ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, northern flicker, eastern kingbird, common crow, catbird, cedar waxwing, bluebird, robin, rose-breasted grosbeak, thrushes, purple finch, brown thrasher, vireo, veery, red squirrel, white-footed mouse, raccoon, fox, and black bear
  • Hazelnut, Corylus americana
    • July - October
    • Nuts, catkins, and buds. Fair winter food.
    • Squirrels and chipmunks eat nuts. Preferred by ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, hairy woodpecker, and blue jay. Browsed by deer and rabbits​​​​​​​
  • Eastern Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis
    • ​​​​​​​September - March
    • Twigs, foliage, and seeds. Excellent winter cover and nesting.
    • Seeds eaten by pine siskin, crossbill, black-capped chickadee, and red squirrel, white-footed mouse. Cover for deer wild turkey, and ruffed grouse. Nesting sites for veery, black-throated blue warbler, black-throated green warbler, black burnian warbler, and juncos. Porcupines eat bark of young hemlocks
  • Shagbark Hickory, Carya ovata
    • ​​​​​​​September - October
    • Nuts. Good winter food.
    • Red squirrels, wild turkey, field sparrows, white-breasted nuthatch, yellow-rumped warbler, pine warbler, cardinal, rosebreasted grosbeaks, rufous-sided towhee, wood ducks and chipmunks
  • Hop-hornbeam, Ostrya virginiana
    • August - October
    • Seeds, catkins, and buds. Seeds persist into winter. Fair summer food.
    • Common merganser, wild turkey, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, downy woodpecker, mockingbird, rose-breasted grosbeak, and purple finchs.​​​​​​
  • Red Maple, Acer rubrum
    • ​​​​​​​March - July
    • Seeds, buds, and sap. Good summer food and nest sites.
    • Yellow-bellied sapsucker, cardinal, evening and pine grosbeaks, and goldfinch. Nesting site for robin and prairie warbler. Browse for deer and rabbits
  • Silver Maple, Acer saccharinum
    • April - June
    • Seeds and buds. Fair summer food. Good nest sites.
    • Cardinal and evening and pine grosbeaks. Nesting sites for northern oriole and goldfinch.​​​​​​
  • Sugar Maple,  Acer saccharum
    • ​​​​​​​June - December
    • Seeds, twigs, and bark. Fair summer food. Good nest sites.
    • Ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, snowshoe hare, squirrel, evening and rose-breasted grosbeak, cardinal, chipmunk, beaver, and porcupine; nest site for robin, vireo, grosbeak, and goldfinch; browse for deer and rabbit
  • Red Oak, Quercus rubra
    • September - December
    • Acorns. Excellent winter food.
    • Wild turkey, ruffed grouse, blue jay, squirrel, wood duck, deer, bear, cottontail, flying squirrel, and various songbirds.​​​​​​
  • White Oak, Quercus alba
    • ​​​​​​​September - November
    • Acorns. Excellent winter food.
    • Wild turkey, ruffed grouse, blue jay, squirrel, wood duck, deer, bear, cottontail, flying squirrel, and various songbirds
  • White Pine, Pinus strobus
    • August - September
    • Seeds, foliage, and twigs. Good for winter cover and songbird nesting. Excellent winter food
    • Spruce grouse, wild turkey, chickadee, nuthatch, grosbeak, crossbill, junco, chipping & white-throated sparrow, pine warbler, brown creeper, snowshoe hare, rabbit, gray and red squirrel, chipmunk, porcupine, beaver, and deer
  • Serviceberry, Amelanchier spp.
    • ​​​​​​​July - August
    • Fruit. Excellent summer food and cover
    • Bluebird, cardinal, cedar waxwing, gray catbird, red squirrel, scarlet tanager, veery, beaver, and deer
  • Spruce, Picea spp.
    • August - November
    • Bark, needles, and seeds. Important northern wildlife food
    •  Spruce grouse, crossbills, snowshoe hare, and deer​​​​​​​
  • Pussy Willow, Salix discolor
    • ​​​​​​​April - May
    • Buds, catkins, twigs, and bark. Moderately important to wildlife
    • Ruffed grouse, various songbirds, rabbits, beaver, hare, squirrel, and other browsing and bud-eating wildlife
  • Witchhazel, Hamamelis virginiana
    • Spring - fall of second year
    • Woody seeds, buds, twigs, and bark. Fair wildlife use, produces winter flowers
    • Catkins preferred by ruffed grouse. Wild turkey, ring-necked
    • pheasant, cardinal, squirrels and browsed by deer

Shrubs- Fruiting Period, Wildlife Use, Wildlife Using Plant For Food

  • Blackberry, Rubus spp.
    • ​​​​​​​July - September
    • Fruits and canes. Includes raspberries. Excellent wildlife cover and nesting
    • Wild turkey, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, blue jay, various woodpeckers, tufted titmouse, mockingbird, gray catbird, brown thrasher, robin, wood thrush, veery, cedar waxwing, grackle, oriole, tanager, cardinal, grosbeak, rufous-sided towhee, raccoon, chipmunk, squirrel, deer, and rabbit
  • Highbush Blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum
    • June - September
    • Fruit, twigs, and buds. Excellent summer food.
    • Ruffed grouse, scarlet tanager, bluebird, gray catbird, rufous sided towhee, thrushes, black bear, chipmunk, white-footed mouse, deer, and rabbit.ed by deer
  • Flowering Dogwood, Cornus florida
    • ​​​​​​​August - November
    • Fruit. Excellent fall food. Good cover and nesting sites.
    • Preferred by wild turkey, northern flicker, pileated woodpecker, yellow-bellied sapsucker, hairy woodpecker, mockingbird, brown thrasher, robin, thrushes, bluebird, cedar waxwing, yellowrumped warbler, cardinal, and evening and pine grosbeak. Also used by deer, rabbits, and squirrels
  • Gray Dogwood, Cornus racemosa
    • ​​​​​​​July - October
    • Fruits persistent to early winter. Excellent fall food. Good cover and nesting sites
    • Preferred by wild turkey, ruffed grouse, northern flicker, downy woodpecker, eastern kingbird, catbird, robin, thrush, cedar waxwing, cardinal, and pine grosbeak. Also used by wood duck, squirrel, rabbit and deer
  • Red-osier Dogwood, Cornus sericea
    • ​​​​​​​July - October
    • Fruit. Excellent fall food. Good cover and nesting sites
    •  Preferred by wild turkey, ruffed grouse, northern flicker, downy woodpecker, eastern kingbird, common crow, catbird, brown thrasher, robin, bluebird, cedar waxwing, and purple finch. Also used by rabbits, deer, and squirrels
  • Silky Dogwood, Cornus amomum
    • ​​​​​​​August - October
    • Fruit. Excellent fall food. Good cover and nesting sites.
    • Preferred by wild turkey, ruffed grouse, northern flicker, downy woodpecker, eastern kingbird, catbird, brown thrasher, robin, wood thrush, bluebird, cedar waxwing, and purple finch. Also used by wood duck, rabbits, deer, and squirrel. deer
  • Elderberry, Sambucus canadensis
    • ​​​​​​​July - September
    • Fruit, twigs, and buds. Grows in moist soil. Good summer food
    • Ruffed grouse, wild turkey, ring-necked pheasant, robin, catbird, bluebird, cardinal, indigo bunting, brown thrasher, squirrel, and rabbit
  • Hawthorn, Crataegus spp.
    • September - March
    • Fruit. Good cover and nesting site. Excellent winter food
    • Favored by ruffed grouse and cedar waxwing.
  • Common Juniper, Juniperus communis
    • ​​​​​​​September - March
    • Twigs, foliage, and bluish-black fruit. Good wildlife food
    • Foliage browsed by deer, rabbits, and other songbirds. Fruit eaten by robin, bluebird, finches, grosbeaks, and cedar waxwing.irrel, and rabbit
  • Pasture Rose, Rosa carolina
    • July - March
    • Hips. Important winter food and summer cover.
    • Used by wildlife in winter when other food sources are scarce. Browsed on by deer and rabbits​​
  • Virginia Rose,  Rosa virginiana
    • ​​​​​​​July- August
    • Hips. Good summer and winter food. Good cover.
    • Wildlife use hips as alternative food source while frequently used for nesting and cover
  • Smooth Sumac, Rhus glabra
    • ​​​​​​​August - October
    • Fruit persistent through winter. Used as an emergency winter and early spring food source
    • Wild turkey, bluebird, robin, gray catbird, cardinal, black-capped chickadee, hermit and wood thrush, mockingbird, rabbit, deer and various overwintering birds
  • Staghorn Sumac, Rhus glabra
    • ​​​​​​​August - March
    • Fruit persistent. Good for cover and nesting in spring. Important winter and early spring food source
    • Wild turkey, bluebird, robin, gray catbird, cardinal, black-capped chickadee, hermit and wood thrush, mockingbird, rabbit, deer and various overwintering birds
  • Viburnums
    • ​​​​​​​August - October
    • Bark, twigs, and buds. Good cover. Late summer or fall ripened fruit
    • Ruffed grouse, brown thrasher, cedar waxwing, red squirrel, and deer.
  • Winterberry, Ilex verticillata
    • ​​​​​​​August - March
    • Berries. Persist through winter. Excellent fall food
    • Consumed by many fruit eating songbirds
  • Canada Yew, Taxus canadensis
    • July - September
    • Fruit and foliage. Good browse.
    • Ruffed Groused, mockingbird, robin, wood thrush, and whitethroated, song, and chipping sparrow. Browsed by deer.us songbirds

Vines- Fruiting Period, Wildlife Use, Wildlife Using Plant For Food

  • Bittersweet, Celastrus scandens
    • ​​​​​​​August - February
    • Fruits, buds, and leaves. One native species, can be very invasive. Excellent winter food
    • Wild turkey, ruffed grouse, bluebirds, and other various songbirdsg wildlifel
  • Wild Grape, Vitis spp.
    • ​​​​​​​August - October
    • Fruit. Excellent summer food. Good cover. Bark used for nest building. Favored by a large number of songbirds
    • Ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, wild turkey, bluebird, cardinal, mockingbird, robin, thrushes, brown thrasher, vireos, various warblers, tanagers, fox sparrow, cedar waxwing, woodpeckers, black bear, gray fox, raccoon, and skunk
  • Poison Ivy, Toxicodendron radicans
    • ​​​​​​​August - November
    • Fruit. Persists through the winter. Excellent fall and winter food
    • Wild turkey, downy and hairy woodpecker, northern flicker, yellow-bellied sapsucker, black-capped chickadee, mockingbird, catbird, hermit thrush, bluebird, ruby-crowned kinglet, yellowrumped warbler, and white-crowned sparrow
  • Virginia creeper, Parthenocissus quiquefolia
    • ​​​​​​​August - February
    • Fruit. Excellent fall food
    • Bluebird, great-crested flycatcher, pileated woodpecker, red-eyed vireo

Compiled by Wendy Patmos-40EE-80

REFERENCES

1. Degraff, R. M. and Witman, G. M. 1979. Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Attracting Birds. The University of Massachusetts Press. 194 pp.

2. Harris Center for Conservation Education. Hancock, NH.

3. Martin, A. M., Zim, H. S., and Nelson, A. L. 1951. American Wildlife & Plants A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits. General Publishing Company, Ltd, Canada. 500 pp.