List of New Hampshire Native Trees

New Hampshire Native Trees

Our latest count shows 86 native tree species in New Hampshire. The exact number is hard to state because some species are more commonly found in a shrub form, about a dozen are rare, and others can be distinguished by only the most determined dendrologist. 

The following criteria were used to determine inclusion on this list:

  • Native to, at least part of, New Hampshire.
  • Capable of growing to at least 20 feet tall.
  • At least on occasion, must grow as single-stem specimens—some are more commonly found in the shrub form.

Species are split into softwood and hardwood groupings. Within those broad groups, species are broken into genus. The genus are listed in alphabetical order by the generic common name (i.e. pine, maple, ash, etc.). The species appear within the generic grouping by the common name(s) most often used by this particular author—many other common names exist. Scientific (Latin) names are also given. Family names appear by the generic scientific name.

Numbers by the name indicate the following: 1Rare plant in New Hampshire (N.H. Natural Heritage Bureau, 2014) 2Rarity status indeterminate (N.H. Natural Heritage Bureau, 2014) 3Exists in tree or shrub form

Species are split into softwood and hardwood groupings. 

Softwoods

Arborvitae northern white-cedar, arborvitae

Thuja (Cupressaceae) Thuja ocidentalis

Fir balsam fir

Abies (Pinaceae) Abies balsamea

Hemlock eastern hemlock

Tsuga (Pinaceae) Tsuga canadensis

Juniper eastern redcedar

Juniperis (Cupressaceae) Juniperus virginiana

Larch tamarack, eastern larch, American larch

Larix (Pinaceae) Larix laricina

Pine eastern white pine- red pine- pitch pine- Jack pine1

Pinus (Pinaceae) Pinus strobus- Pinus resinosa- Pinus rigida- Pinus banksiana1

Spruce black spruce- red spruce- white spruce

Picea (Pinaceae) Picea mariana- Picea rubens- Picea glauca

White Cedar Atlantic white-cedar

Chamaecyparis (Cupressaceae) Chamaecyparis thyoides

Hardwoods

Ash white ash- black ash- green ash

Fraxinus (Oleaceae) Fraxinus americana- Fraxinus nigra- Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Basswood American basswood

Tilia (Tiliaceae) Tilia americana

Beech American beech

Fagus (Fagaceae) Fagus grandifolia

Birch yellow birch- sweet birch, black birch- river birch1- paper birch, white birch- heart-leaved paper birch- gray birch

Betula (Betulaceae) Betula alleghaniensis- Betula lenta- Betula nigra1- Betula papyrifera- Betula cordifolia- Betula populifolia

Cherry American plum2,3- black cherry- pin cherry, fire cherry- choke cherry3

Prunus (Rosaceae) Prunus americana2,3- Prunus serotina- Prunus pensylvanica- Prunus virginiana3

Chestnut American chestnut

Castanea (Fagaceae) Castanea dentata

Dogwood flowering dogwood3

Benthamidia (Cornaceae) Benthamidia florida, syn. Cornus florida

Elm American elm- slippery elm

Ulmus (Ulmaceae) Ulmus americana- Ulmus rubra

Gum black gum, black tupelo

Nyssa (Cornaceae) Nyssa sylvatica

Hackberry hackberry3

Celtis (Ulmaceae) Celtis occidentalis3

Hawthorn dotted hawthorn- fireberry hawthorn3- frosted hawthorn2,3- Biltmore hawthorn3- northern hawthorn3- Gray’s hawthorn2, 3- Gray’s hawthorn3- yellow hawthorn2, 3- Holmes’ hawthorn3- entangled hawthorn2, 3- long-thorned hawthorn3- large-seeded hawthorn3- poplar hawthorn1, 3- Pringles hawthorn3- scabrous hawthorn2, 3- royal hawthorn2, 3- Quebec hawthorn3

Craetagus (Rosaceae) Crataegus punctata- Crataegus chrysocarpa3- Crataegus pruinosa2,3- Crataegus biltmoreana3- Crataegus dissona3- Crataegus flabellata var. grayana2, 3- Crataegus flabellata var. flabellata3- Crataegus flavida2, 3- Crataegus holmesiana3- Crataegus intricata2, 3- 3 Crataegus macracantha3- 3Crataegus macrosperma3- Crataegus populnea1, 3- Crataegus pringlei- Crataegus scabrida2, 3- Crataegus schuettei var. basilica2, 3- Crataegus submollis3

Hickory bitternut hickory- shagbark hickory- pignut hickory

Carya (Juglandaceae) Carya cordiformis- Carya ovata- Carya glabra

Hophornbeam hophornbeam, ironwood

Ostrya (Betulaceae) Ostrya virginiana

Hornbeam blue-beech, musclewood, American hornbeam, ironwood

Carpinus (Betulaceae) Carpinus caroliniana

Maple boxelder, ash-leaved maple- black maple1- striped maple, moosewood maple3- red maple, white maple, swamp maple, soft maple- silver maple- sugar maple, rock maple, hard maple- mountain maple3

Acer (Aceraceae) Acer negundo- Acer nigrum1- Acer pensylvanicum3- Acer rubrum- Acer saccharinum- Acer saccharum- Acer spicatum3

Mountain Ash American mountain-ash- showy mountain-ash

Sorbus (Rosaceae) Sorbus americana- Sorbus decora

Oak Quercus (Fagaceae) northern red oak- scarlet oak- black oak- white oak- swamp white oak- chestnut oak1- bur oak, mossy-cup oak1

Quercus (Fagaceae) Quercus rubra- Quercus coccinea- Quercus velutina- Quercus alba- Quercus bicolor- Quercus montana syn. Quercus prinus1- Quercus macrocarpa1

Poplar eastern cottonwood- balsam poplar- bigtooth aspen- quaking aspen, trembling aspen, popple  

Populus (Salicaceae) Populus deltoides- Populus balsamifera- Populus grandidentata- Populus tremuloides

Sassafras sassafras

Sassafras (Lauraceae) Sassafras albidum

Serviceberry or Shadbush downy serviceberry, downy shadbush3- mountain serviceberry, mountain shadbush3- eastern serviceberry, eastern shadbush3- intermediate serviceberry, intermediate shadbush3- smooth serviceberry, smooth shadbush3

Amelanchier (Rosaceae) Amelanchier laevis3- Amelanchier arborea3- Amelanchier bartramiana3- Amelanchier canadensis3- Amelanchier intermedia3

Sumac staghorn sumac3

Rhus (Anacardiaceae) Rhus hirta syn. Rhus typhina3

Sycamore American sycamore, planetree, buttonwood

Platanus (Platanaceae) Platanus occidentalis

Walnut butternut, white walnut

Juglans (Juglandaceae) Juglans cinerea

Willow black willow

Salix (Salicaceae) Salix nigra

References

Arthur Haines. 2011. New England Wild Flower Society's Florae Novae Angliae: A Manual for the Identification of Native and Naturalized Higher Vascular Plants of New England. Yale University Press. New Haven, Ct.

Albion R. Hodgdon and Frederic L. Steele, 1958. The Woody Plants of New Hampshire, UNH Ag. Exp. Station Bulletin #447.

Willian Harlow, Ellwood Harrar, and Fred White. 1979. Textbook of Dendrology, McGraw-Hill Series in Forest Resources.

Henry A. Gleason and Arthur Cronquist, 1993, Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, The New York Botanical Garden.

Kartecz, J.T., 1999. A Synonymized Checklist and Atlas with Biological Attributes for the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First Edition. In: Kartecz, J.T., and C.A. Meachum. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill. NC.

Use your favorite search-engine for these helpful websites

N.H. Natural Heritage Bureau—for lists of plants found in New Hampshire

Go Botany—the New England Wild Flower Society’s plant identification site

Silvics of North America—online version of the classic USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 654

 

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