Pest Hotline Transcripts

Pest trap in apple tree

Updated every Tuesday through the season. Keep your eyes peeled for out-of-the-ordinary pest alerts in our email newsletter. If you are not subscribed, sign-up here.

July 28, 2021

More rain means high risk for summer diseases in apple and brown rot in peaches. Consult the guide for materials.

We’re hearing reports that apple maggot started early but has remained in low numbers so far this year, but well worth continuing monitoring.  As a reminder, threshold is an average of one fly per trap with no lure, making sure you’re using at least 3 traps per plot to make that decision if not more. Threshold is 5 flies/trap if you’re using an attractive lure.

Now might be a good time to think about monitoring for BMSB, if that’s something that might affect you. For the most part we only see economic injury in later maturing varieties here in NH.

For small fruit growers, we are seeing SWD infestations in blueberry down here in Durham. I’ve spoken with lots of folks who are shutting down insecticide-free PYO or switching to harvesting for juice.

 

July 20, 2021

We saw more rain and humid conditions this week, so we’re still keeping an eye on summer diseases. If you applied a fungicide last week you are likely at low to moderate risk of infections. Consider your history of summer diseases and consult the tree fruit guide for materials.

We’re hearing reports that apple maggot started early but has remained in low numbers so far this year.  The sites that have been seeing threshold number typically have something that favors apple maggot success, like a nearby abandoned orchard or other source of apple maggot food and overwintering sites.  As a reminder, threshold is an average of one fly per trap with no lure, making sure you’re using at least 3 traps per plot to make that decision if not more. Threshold is 5 flies/trap if you’re using an attractive lure.

For small fruit growers, we are getting reports of first capture of adults from most regions and we are starting to pick up low level infestations in our blueberries here in Durham. We’ve been recommending weekly sprays to protect against low risk populations and 5 day rotations to folks who are seeing more than 10 males/trap/week. Consult the Small Fruit guide for materials.

July 13, 2021

With all this rain and predicted high humidity, many orchards will be at risk of infection from summer diseases, like sooty blotch, fly speck, various rots and potential secondary scab infections. If you have a history of any of these, you’ll likely want to take some action if you haven’t already.  It’s likely too late to use a preventative fungicide, so you’ll need to select a material with some kickback. Consult the tree fruit management guide.

Apple maggot season has started and some folks are picking up low numbers of apple maggot in their traps. Threshold is an average of one fly per trap with no lure, making sure you’re using at least 3 traps per plot to make that decision if not more. Threshold is 5 flies/trap if you’re using an attractive lure.

For small fruit growers, this week’s moisture will likely also be favorable for spotted wing drosophila, putting most of the state into low to nearly high risk of infestation. We’ve been recommending weekly sprays to protect against low risk populations and 5 day rotations to folks who are seeing more than 10 males/trap/week. Consult the Small Fruit guide for materials.

 

July 6, 2021

This week’s forecast looks pretty wet so now would be a good time to consider your history of summer diseases, like sooty blotch and flyspeck. Consult the Tree Fruit Guide for materials to protect plots with a history of economic injury.

It’s also time to start thinking about getting out your apple maggot traps.

For small fruit growers, this week’s moisture will likely bring out spotted wing drosophilia in full force, putting most of the state into low to nearly high risk of infestation. We’ve been recommending weekly sprays to protect against low risk populations and 5 day rotations to folks who are seeing more than 10 males/trap/week. Consult the Small Fruit guide for materials.

For grape growers, now might be a good time to scout clusters for signs of grape berry moth infestation. Treatment might be considered if more than 6% of clusters are damaged by larvae and that treatment should be timed for about 800 DD after biofix. Biofix is the date you first trapped grape berry moth on your farm or, for this particular species, when you notice wild grapes blooming. For example, biofix occurred in early June in Durham, so today we are about 679 GDD from biofix with a few hundred more GDD to accumulate before treating for second generation larvae.

 

June 29, 2021

We’ve accumulated 787 base 50 GDD in Durham.

This hot, dry weather means low risk of summer disease infections but high risk for mite flare ups.

For small fruit growers, we have started to detect very low numbers of SWD in southern regions of the state. The silver lining in this week’s heat is that SWD do not lay eggs when evening temperatures are above 80F, which we’ve achieved a few times this week. Join our facebook group “SWD Monitoring Support Group” to post your photos or to see what others are seeing.

 

June 22, 2021

We’ve accumulated 650 base 50 GDD in Durham.

We have been hearing reports of many fireblight strikes in several orchards. Now might be a good time to scout the orchard and prune out small strikes, making sure to cut about a foot below where you see visible symptoms and clean those tools between cuts. If a tree is too severely infected to effectively remove symptomatic shoots, flag that tree for removal.

This hot dry weather may be causing mite flares for some of you. Check the Tree Fruit Guide for recommendations on materials, and keep in mind that these mites can affect trees in hotspots so spot treatment might be sufficient in many situations.

SWD traps should be out by now. Whatever style of trap you’re using, its best to use the average from at least three traps per plot. If you’re using Trece traps, protect ripe fruit as soon as you detect SWD males. If you’re using Scentry traps or homemade traps with yeast bait, protect ripe fruit when you start seeing and average of 3-5 males per trap. Scentry lures are more sensitive but they also capture a lot more other stuff than the Trece lures. Eastern NY has reported their first capture but we haven’t heard reports of SWD in New England yet. Join our facebook group “SWD Monitoring Support Group” to post your photos or to see what others are seeing.

There will be a virtual tree fruit twilight meeting, Wednesday, June 23rd from 6-8pm, with pesticide applicator credit.

We at extension are saying farewell to George Hamilton and Cheryl Smith who are retiring this week! Please reach out to them directly if you'd like to say hi or I can pass along any message for you. Email me at anna.wallingford@unh.edu.

 

June 15, 2021

We’ve accumulated 525 base 50 GDD in Durham.

For those of you who are targeting sprays to the first generation of codling moth, that window should be closing soon. For those of you that saw San Jose scale injury last year, those first generation crawlers are likely active now. Refer to the Tree Fruit Guide to select materials and target areas where you saw injury last year.

Those of you with young trees, potato leaf hopper has been reported in the area so now would be a good time to scout those trees for adults or nymphs. Mature apple trees do not need to be protected from leafhoppers but you might think about protecting young trees if you see more than a few of those little neon green nymphs running sideways on the undersides of leaves.

Blueberry maggot models predict flights starting soon. SWD traps should be out by now. Whatever style of trap you’re using, its best to use the average from at least three traps per plot. If you’re using Trece traps, protect ripe fruit as soon as you detect SWD males. If you’re using Scentry traps or homemade traps with yeast bait, protect ripe fruit when you start seeing and average of 3-5 males per trap. Scentry lures are more sensitive but they also capture a lot more other stuff than the Trece lures. We’re trialing a “dry trap this year” so follow our facebook group “SWD Monitoring Support Group” to post your photos or to see what others are seeing. Eastern NY has reported their first capture but we haven’t heard reports of SWD in New England yet.

There will be a virtual tree fruit twilight meeting, next Wednesday, June 23rd from 6-8pm, with pesticide applicator credit. Put it on your calendar.

June 8, 2021

We’ve seen some hot ones and have accumulated 400 base 50 GDD in Durham.

Apple scab ascospore maturity has reached 100% in most regions of the state. While we really don’t officially call an end to primary infection season until about 10-14 days after we hit 100%, you should be pretty much out of the woods as long as you’ve gotten preventative fungicides on before this week’s rain showers. Scout your orchard over the next few weeks for lesions to determine if you have any concerns for secondary infection. Lesions can be found on terminal foliage in early-developing orchards, and also on the upper side of fruit cluster leaves in later-developing orchards.

Continue to check hotspots and border trees for plum curculio stings but that season should be winding down. If you have a history of codling moth injury – like more than 5% injury in last year’s harvest – and plan on targeting sprays to the first generation soon. For those of you that saw San Jose scale injury last year, we’re coming up on first generation crawlers pretty soon too. Refer to the Tree Fruit Guide to select materials.

Strawberry harvest is underway and other than some sunscald here and there, things have been looking good. Keep your eyes peeled for spider mites and thrips, who love hot, dry conditions. Examine the undersides of 5-10 leaves in 5-10 locations around the field. For two-spotted spider mites, an action threshold of 25% of infested leaves is typical, but also consider that this pest tends to break out in hotspots, so spot treatment might provide sufficient control. Avoid the use of pyrethroids for spider mites as these products tend to cause flare ups in mite populations. 

For blueberry and raspberry growers who are monitoring for spotted wing drosophila or blueberry maggot. Start thinking about getting your traps out. I’ll report what we’re seeing regionally on this message but every site is really different for these flies, so monitoring your fruit is best. If you’re using Trece traps, protect ripe fruit as soon as you detect SWD males. If you’re using Scentry traps, protect ripe fruit when you start seeing and average of 3-5 males per trap. Scentry lures are more sensitive but they also capture a lot more other stuff than the Trece lures. We’re trialing a “dry trap" this year so follow our facebook group “SWD Monitoring Support Group” to post your photos or to see what others are seeing.

Looking well ahead in the calendar, there will be another virtual tree fruit twilight meeting June 23rd from 6-8pm, with pesticide applicator credit. Put it on your calendar.

 

 

June 1, 2021

We’ve accumulated 620 base 43 GDD here in Durham, 260 GDD in base 50, over a remarkably weird week with some much needed rain! Bumble bees likely took a hit from last year’s drought and cool weather has made blueberry pollination season a bit of a struggle.

Apple scab primary scab season is nearing completion but you are likely still open to risk of infection. An infection event is predicted this week, so think about getting a preventative fungicide ahead of rain showers.

Plum curculio are likely starting to lay their eggs tree fruit. Trees should be protected from egg-laying as soon as fruitlets are ¼” in diameter. We’ve been hearing reports of a pretty light year so far but this cool weather may have slowed things. After that first cover spray, keep your eyes peeled for fresh oviposition scars on border trees to trigger another spray, or just a border spray as this is sufficient for that follow up treatment.

We’ve heard that strawberries are coming in quite well this year! Some comments for strawberry as growth flushes and blossoms open. Tarnished plant bug may be moving in to blooming plantings. Tap flowers over a white surface, like a piece of paper, paper plate, white Frisbee, to see if tiny almost neon-green TPB nymphs jump out.  Threshold is reached if 4 or more flower clusters are infested with nymphs out of 30 clusters sampled evenly from across the field.

To scout for spider mites and aphids, examine the undersides of 5-10 leaves in 5-10 locations around the field. For two-spotted spider mites, an action threshold of 25% of infested leaves is typical, but also consider that this pest tends to break out in hotspots, so spot treatment might provide sufficient control. Avoid the use of pyrethroids for spider mites as these products tend to cause flare ups in mite populations. 

Looking well ahead in the calendar, there will be another virtual tree fruit twilight meeting June 23rd from 6-8pm, with pesticide applicator credit. Put it on your calendar.

 

May 25, 2021

Well this season has lurched forward and we’ve accumulated 520 base 43 GDD here in Durham, 200 GDD in base 50.

Risk of blossom blight fireblight infection is wrapping up as the bloom period wraps. We are still within the primary infection period for apple scab so you may want to keep an eye on the weather reports and protect trees before rain showers.

Plum curculio are likely starting to lay their eggs tree fruit. Trees should be protected from egg-laying as soon as fruitlets are ¼” in diameter.

Some reports of young gypsy moth blowing into fruit crops from surrounding wooded habitat. Little furry caterpillars with red and blue dots on their backs. Really only a threat if there are a lot of them but there is a threat if you get a lot blowing into  so know how to identify gypsy moth caterpillars.

Some comments for strawberry as growth flushes and blossoms open. Tarnished plant bug may be moving in to blooming plantings. Tap flowers over a white surface, like a piece of paper, paper plate, white Frisbee, to see if tiny almost neon-green TPB nymphs jump out.  Threshold is reached if 4 or more flower clusters are infested with nymphs out of 30 clusters sampled evenly from across the field.

To scout for spider mites and aphids, examine the undersides of 5-10 leaves in 5-10 locations around the field. For two-spotted spider mites, an action threshold of 25% of infested leaves is typical, but also consider that this pest tends to break out in hotspots, so spot treatment might provide sufficient control. Avoid the use of pyrethroids for spider mites as these products tend to cause flare ups in mite populations. 

Some other damage you might encounter as you scout strawberry: Ragged holes in leaves might be an indication of slug feeding. If you notice that the pedicles, or stems, of developing fruit appear clipped off or dying, this might be strawberry clipper. If you notice the entire plant has been removed from its roots, that might be cutworm.

 

 

 

May 17, 2021

We’ve accumulated 360 base 43 GDD here in Durham, 100 GDD in base 50.

I have an update from our plant pathologist, Dr. Cheryl Smith, reminding us that fireblight risk is very high for anyone in our region with blooming apple trees. It’s best to get a Strep application before an infection event, or wetting period of rain or heavy dew. Strep provides as much as 48 hours of protection. Considering many of you had severe fireflight last year, it would make sense to revisit Dr. Kari Peter’s reccomendations. For young trees, strep plus actiguard applied during bloom can improve tree immune response to infection, For older trees, Apogee or Kudos plus Regalia can be used to boost tree immune response. For both young and mature trees, following with Queva is an option when you’re past full bloom.

There will be a virtual tree fruit twilight meeting this week, Wednesday May 19th @ 6pm. Register for this event at our website or call Jeremy DeLisle for more information at 603-255-3592.

May 11, 2021

We’ve accumulated 270 base 43 GDD here in Durham, 60 GDD in base 50. Things have barely progressed since last week so this message from our plant pathologist, Dr. Cheryl Smith is very similar to last week.

Apple scab ascospore maturation is peaking in many areas so it will be very important for you to watch the weather forecast and get a protectant fungicide out before your next rain shower.

Cool temperatures through our region, means that we did not see any fireblight infection periods last week and risk remains at low this week. However, 2020 was a VERY BAD year for fire blight meaning that risk could be high as soon as temperatures build, so be vigilant and monitor NEWA for fire blight predictions as we approach  bloom (enter the date of 1st blossom open for your orchard into the biofix for the fire blight model predictions. Your 1st Strep application should go on during bloom when MaryBlyt EIP ≥ 100; or Cougar blight shows high risk.

For those of you relying on mating disruption for codling moth, that should be deployed by bloom. For those of you who monitor codling moth, you should have your traps up by now. First trap is anticipated around 200-300 DD(50) and that first capture establishes a biofix. This biofix is important for subsequent degree day accumulation that predicts peak CM flights on your farm through the year.

Now might also be a good time to scout for gypsy moth larvae. Gypsy moth is a rare but potentially damaging pest in the orchard, which can thrive in dry years when its naturally-occurring fungal pathogens aren’t thriving. Larvae are small this time of year but they’re fuzzy and have conspicuous blue and red dots, and easily controlled with Dipel, which contains a bee-safe biocontrol product.

There will be a virtual tree fruit twilight meeting next week, Wednesday May 19th @ 6pm. Register for this event at our website or call Jeremy DeLisle for more information at 603-255-3592.

 

 

May 4, 2021

An update from UNH's plant pathologist, Dr. Cheryl Smith

We’ve accumulated 220 base 43 GDD here in Durham, 46 GDD in base 50. Mac phenology ranges from 50% bloom to tight pink (Londonderry to Plainfield). Warmer weather predicted for next week, so things will start to progress quickly.

We’re in the thick of apple scab primary infection period, ascospore maturity ranges from about 20-60%, 36% - 20% (Londonderry to Plainfield)  (Walpole at 54%). The NEWA scab models are predicting a scab event that started 5/3 or 5/4 and will continue through 5/5 or  5/6 (Mon-Thur). Remember to check the NEWA station closest to you, enter the date of green tip for your orchard into the biofix for the apple scab model predictions. (newa. cornell.edu)

If you did not have a protectant on in the last 7 days, you may want to consider a kick- back product. If you had NO scab in the orchard last year – you may be able to risk it.  But if you have a window – at least get on a rainfast mancozeb. Kari Peter (PA) recommendation: use a rainfast mancozeb (Manzate Pro-Stick, Roper Rainshield, etc.). The rainfast mancozeb gives better control since it can persist longer during rainy, wet periods. Any non-rainfast mancozeb can be made rainfast by adding a spreader sticker (4 fl oz/100 gal).

2020 was a VERY BAD year for fire blight! For those of you in northern regions, it may not be too late to apply a plant activator from tight cluster to pink, in order to activate plant defences prior to bloom. Remember that bloom is the key time for management – flowers must be open for infection to occur. Current risk is low to moderate through 5/9 (Sunday). Be vigilant and monitor NEWA for fire blight predictions as we approach  bloom (enter the date of 1st blossom open for your orchard into the biofix for the fire blight model predictions. 1st Strep application should go on when MaryBlyt EIP ≥ 100; or Cougar blight shows high risk.

Many stone fruit crops are at petal fall. Now is a critical time for managing bacterial spot in peaches, petal fall through shuck split. It also remains a critical time for managing brown rot and peach scabe in stone fruit, from bloom until 3 weeks after bloom and again 3 weeks before harvest. Refer to Tree Fruit guide for materials.

April 27, 2021

We’ve accumulated 166 base 43 GDD here in Durham, 32 GDD in base 50. We are hearing reports of green tissue out in apple, blueberry, and raspberry.

Tree phenology has been slow moving this year but we still need to pay close attention to apple scab infections. Spore maturity varies from 4% to 19% around the state and all locations have a predicted scab event with predicted rain this week. Getting on a protectant before this weeks rain would be a good idea. Captan is a good protectant fungicide. Kari Peter (PA) recommends using a rainfast material like mancozeb (Manzate Pro-Stick, Roper Rainshield, etc.). The rainfast mancozeb gives better control since it can persist longer during rainy, wet periods. Any non-rainfast mancozeb can be made rainfast by adding a spreader sticker (4 fl oz/100 gal). Warmer weather predicted for next week – so spores will mature.

Peach growers. Critical time for brown rot management is bloom – 3 weeks post bloom. (and again 3 weeks before harvest). If you have a history of peach scab, this is something to think about now. Refer to Tree Fruit guide for materials (several products are excellent for both). The cold/snowy conditions last week might result in some blossom blast so know how to distinguish that from brown rot-infected flowers that have visible spores.

There will be a virtual Tree Fruit IPM webinar next Wednesday 4/28 at 6 pm, featuring our very own Dr. Cheryl Smith who will walk us through NEWA forecasting models for disease management, and a special guest from Rutgers University, Dr. Thierry Besancon who will discuss Integrated Weed Management for Orchards. PAT credit pending. https://extension.unh.edu/events/tree-fruit-virtual-twilight-meeting

Or call Jeremy Delisle at 603-255-3592 for more information.

April 20, 2021

An update from UNH's plant pathologist, Dr. Cheryl Smith

We’ve accumulated 128 base 43 GDD here in Durham, 25 GDD in base 50. We are hearing reports of green tissue out in apple, blueberry, and raspberry. It sounds like most of our peaches made it through last week’s cold weather unscathed but we do expect peach bloom in many areas this week.

Apple scab spore maturity ranges from 2-10% and it looks like we have a few potential infection events in the forecast this week…like right now 4/20-21 and maybe again this weekend 4/24-25. If you can get out with a preventative before rains, that would be ideal, if not get out with a material with some kickback after rains. Scout for infections 9-17 days post-infection (4/22-4/30) and  (4/29-5/7) to assess your apple scab conditions.

Now would be the time to get out with a dormant oil application for smothering overwintered spider mite eggs and the overwintered life stage of Comstock mealybug and San Jose scale (blackcaps). Large spray volumes help with good coverage. We recommend 2 gallons of oil per 100 gallons of water from greentip to 1/2" and use 1 gallon as you get closer to tight cluster or if you have any concerns regarding cold temperatures. You should avoid using dormant oils during freezing weather, so you're looking for a 48 hour window of good temps.

If you have a history of Rosy Apple Aphid, you will want to get out and scout fruit clusters between now and pink. Observe 20 or so fruit clusters throughout each block and use an action threshold of an average of one colony per cluster make sure to act before bloom. If this is a chronic problem in your orchard, you might think about broadleaf weed management in the fall as many of these weeds are alternative hosts for the aphids.

Peach growers. Critical time for brown rot management is bloom – 3 weeks post bloom. (and again 3 weeks before harvest). If you have a history of peach scab, this is something to think about now. Refer to Tree Fruit guide for materials (several products are excellent for both). The cold/snowy conditions last week might result in some blossom blast so know how to distinguish that from brown rot-infected flowers that have visible spores.

Blueberries. For those of you with a history of mummy berry, now is a good time to do some ground management to reduce fungal incoculum. You can cover those overwintered structures with 2-3” of mulch at anytime in the dormant period. Alternatively, cultivation right around bud-break will help destroy or disturb emerging mummies. 50% urea at this time can also help, but avoid applying to wet areas. Scout for apothecia in mummified fruit under the bushes (little brown cup-shaped mushrooms) Refer to the Small Fruit guide for fungicides if you think you need them, begin applying at bud swell.

Looking forward to next week! There will be a virtual Tree Fruit IPM webinar next Wednesday 4/28 at 6 pm, featuring our very own Dr. Cheryl Smith who will walk us through NEWA forecasting models for disease management, and a special guest from Rutgers University, Dr. Thierry Besancon who will discuss Integrated Weed Management for Orchards. PAT credit pending.

Register on our website Or call Jeremy Delisle at 603-255-3592 for more information.

 

April 13, 2021

An update from UNH's plant pathologist, Dr. Cheryl Smith

We’ve accumulated 105 base 43 GDD here in Durham, 25 GDD in base 50. Apricots are blooming and peaches are threatening. I would expect to see some green tissue on apples for many of you so now is the time to go out with copper to clean up overwintered disease inoculum.

Risk models for primary infection period for apple scab begin when 50% of macs are at green tip but risk of infection is very low this week with little ascospore maturity predicted and little rain in the forecast.

Tarnished plant bug is likely getting active in the orchard now. TPB activity is highly dependent on temperature, so that 2 or 3 days of warm (50-60 degrees), sunny weather triggers increased foraging and feeding behavior. White sticky traps can be stapled to stakes or hung on low branches no higher than knee height near orchard perimeter. Use at least one trap per 3 acres and at least 3 traps per monitored block. Action threshold is cumulative average of 5 TPB per trap by Tight Cluster or 8 TPB by Pink. Examine 10 terminals per block for bleeding buds. Action threshold is 2-3 bleeding sites per 10-terminal sample.

 

April 6, 2021

We’ve accumulated 60 base 43 GDD here in Durham, 15 GDD in base 50. The forecast looks pretty nice this week so I would expect many of you to start seeing green tip any day now.

Risk models for primary infection period for apple scab begin when 50% of macs are at green tip so that’s when we start looking at risk for infection events. Given last year’s drought conditions, most of us will be at pretty low risk to apple scab in 2021, especially if you practice good sanitation.

Delayed-dormant sprays of petroleum oil (green tip through tight cluster) should be considered for smothering overwintered spider mite eggs and the overwintered life stage of Comstock mealybug and San Jose scale (blackcaps). Large spray volumes help with good coverage. We recommend 2 gallons of oil per 100 gallons of water from greentip to 1/2" and use 1 gallon as you get closer to tight cluster or if you have any concerns regarding cold temperatures. You should avoid using dormant oils during freezing weather, so you're looking for a 48 hour window of good temps.

For peaches affected by peach leaf curl and other bacterial disease, copper sprays need to go on before any green tissue emerges. Copper sprays will be important for apple affected by fireblight last year.

Typically we don’t pay much attention to strawberries this time of year but we’ve gotten reports from a strawberry grower who observed some nighttime feeding by winter cutworm. This is a weird one and relatively new to the region but this is the time of year you might see some weird injury. The only way to confirm the species would be to go out at night with your headlamp and catch these caterpillars red-handed…or red-mandibled in this case.

The recording of our recent NH Tree Fruit Grower’s Association Meeting, is available online if you missed it or want to listen back. Kari Peters’s Reqs on Canker Management and Kerik Cox’s reqs on spring disease management are also available online or you can call me at 603-862-1734

Upcoming webinars

Next Tuesday (4/13) noon to 1pm, join our Ag Biz team for Making Sense of Trusts as an Estate Planning Tool

Or call Kelly McAdam at 603-527-5475

Next Wednesday (4/14) noon to 1pm, join entomologists and crop production specialists from the region for Practical Tips for Brassica Insect Pest Management

Or call Shyloh Favreau at 603-862-3200

March 30, 2021

My apologies for the abrupt ending to the season last year. Technical difficulties!

But things are picking up here in Durham, having accumulated 13 growing degree days so far. Now is the time to get serious about dormant sprays if you haven’t already.

Delayed-dormant sprays of petroleum oil (green tip through tight cluster) should be considered for smothering overwintered spider mite eggs and the overwintered life stage of Comstock mealybug and San Jose scale (blackcaps). Large spray volumes help with good coverage. We recommend 2 gallons of oil per 100 gallons of water from greentip to 1/2" and use 1 gallon as you get closer to tight cluster or if you have any concerns regarding cold temperatures. You should avoid using dormant oils during freezing weather, so you're looking for a 48 hour window of good temps.

For peaches affected by peach leaf curl and other bacterial disease, copper sprays need to go on before any green tissue emerges. Copper sprays will be important for apple affected by fireblight last year.

Getting Even More Out of Your Cover Crops webinar Thursday April 1, 1:00-2:30 pm or call Carl Majewski at 603-352-4550.

Making Sense of Trusts as an Estate Planning Tool webinar Tuesday April 13, 12:00-1:00 pm or call Kelly McAdam at 603-527-5475.

 

 

August 31, 2020

We are hitting the pause button on weekly messages for the season but we will return next year in April.

 

 

August 18, 2020

We have accumulated 1800 base 50 growing degree days here in Durham. Drought conditions are creating challenges all over the state, including many reports of overwhelming fall webworm and other defoliating caterpillars. These are sporadic forest insects that typically do not cause a lot of problems in the orchard but a dry spring knocks back the naturally occurring entomopathogenic organisms that typically keep their populations low.

While this is typically the homestretch for orchard crop protection, we’ve have a few pest organisms for your to consider. Unfortunately, many areas have seen enough heat units to consider risk from codling moth’s 3rd generation. If you observed internal worm injury during the first generation, you might considering monitoring and acting on the 3rd.

George Hamilton has reported late instar brown marmorated stink bug in his traps in the southern region of the state, so if you are monitoring for the soon-to-come adult generation in your peaches or apples, now would be the time to get those traps up. For pheromone baited sticky cards, we’re recommending a few traps on wooded border rows and one or two in the center of each block. A border row would be sufficient if you observe an average of 4 BMSB on border row traps. If you’re catching BMSB in the center of the orchard, a full spray would be called for.

All areas are at risk for SWD infestation and risk will remain high until flies enter reproductive diapause in September. Check your guide for information on crop protection materials. Post-harvest refrigeration is critical here.

We are also keeping an eye out for the rarely observed 2nd generation of squash vine borer. This species got started early this year, and we’re hearing reports of a second peak in some areas, which could be an issue in winter squash. Check weekly monitoring data to see the moth activity in your region.

I don’t see too much on the calendar in terms of events but I will be scheduling visits for the annual apple evaluation over the next couple of weeks so give me a holler if you want to make sure you are included.

August 3, 2020

We’re seeing a lot of heat and watching for storms coming our way this week but there are many repeats from last week’s message.

If you missed our fire blight webinar with Dr. Kari Peter last week, find a recording by clicking here.

Keep your eyes peeled for apple maggot. Thresholds are 1 fly/trap with no lure, 5 flies/trap with an attractive lure. Codling moth's second generation is likely flying. Best practice is to rotate materials, including materials used during the first generation flight, to avoid resistance.

George Hamilton has reported late instar brown marmorated stink bug in his traps in the southern region of the state, so if you are monitoring for the soon-to-come adult generation in your peaches or apples, now would be the time to get those traps up. For pheromone baited sticky cards, we’re recommending a few traps on wooded border rows and one or two in the center of each block. A border row would be sufficient if you observe an average of 4 BMSB on border row traps. If you’re catching BMSB in the center of the orchard, a full spray would be called for.

All areas are at risk for SWD infestation and risk will remain high until flies enter reproductive diapause in September. Check your guide for information on crop protection materials. Post-harvest refrigeration is critical here.

 

July 28, 2020

We have accumulated 1270 base 50 growing degree days here in Durham.

A reminder that we will host a fireblight webinar tonight Tuesday July 28, with Dr. Kari Peter, Fruit Pathologist with Penn State University, George Hamilton, Cheryl Smith, & Jeremy Delisle to discuss control options orchardists should be using in trying to control this disease in orchards. Register on the extension website or contact Mary West at 603-796-2152 . No credits but this will be well worth your time.

Apple maggot fly numbers are creeping up. We have heard reports of threshold populations at few sites last week. That’s 1 fly/trap with no lure, 5 flies/trap with an attractive lure. Second generation of codling moth is flying and egg laying will soon follow. Second generation of San Jose scale males are likely flying soon, so not quite time to scout for the susceptible crawler period.

Pretty much everyone in the state is now at risk for SWD infestation. This heat we’re seeing this week will slow egg laying but, when evening temperatures drop back below 80oF, SWD risk will remain high until they enter reproductive diapause in September. Raspberry is by far the most preferred crop and require shorter spray rotations more like every 5 days for good control, versus weekly applications that provide good control in less preferred blueberry crops. Check your guide for information on crop protection materials. It looks like most cherry crops were harvested without much in the way of infestation.

For vegetable crops, we got a notice of confirmed cucurbit downy mildew in Franklin Co, MA.

If you suspect you have downy mildew, our plant diagnostic lab is not currently accepting physical samples but you can submit a digital sample by emailing pdl.digitalsample@unh.edu and Dr. Smith will work to identify your problem.

Our Food Safety Team is hosting a virtual twilight meeting on Managing Humidity & Condensation in Coolers. This is an important topic for anyone using cold storage and will feature Chris Callahan and Andy Chamberlain from UVM’s Ag Engineering team. Register on our website or give Heather Bryant a call at 603-787-6944.

 

July 20, 2020

Next Tuesday evening (7/28) at 6pm, we will host a fireblight webinar with Dr. Kari Peter, Fruit Pathologist with Penn State University, George Hamilton, Cheryl Smith, & Jeremy Delisle to discuss control options orchardists should be using in trying to control this disease in orchards. Register on the extension website or contact Mary West at 603-796-2152 . No credits but this will be well worth your time.

Second generation flight of codling moth is likely beginning, and egg-laying to proceed. Comstock mealybug’s second generation is right around the corner too, so you might be thinking about scouting your tape traps soon. It’s a good time to scout for scale insects too.

Get those apple maggot traps out. Threshold is one fly per trap with no lure, 5 flies/trap with an attractive lure.

Get serious about protecting peaches from brown rot a couple weeks before harvest.

SWD is present in most regions of the state and risk of infestation is climbing in hotspots. Our research farm in Durham is currently experiencing high pest pressure, traps are capturing an average of 12 males, raspberry infestation is roughly 50% while blueberry infestation is below 3%. At locations with a history of blueberry maggot, degree day calculators predict that most of the state is at peak egg-laying for blueberry maggot as well.

Corn pest pressure was low last week but watch for regional storms blowing up new flights of moth pests by checking our weekly scouting report

George Hamilton will be discussing how to get great spray coverage and sprayer calibration for small scale operations this Wednesday night (7/22) 6:30 - 8:30 pm. We will also be discussing what you need to know if you are considering foggers for high tunnel production. Meg McGrath from Cornell will discuss the theory and legality of using sulfur burners for powdery mildew management.  Spoiler alert: please don’t burn sulfur.  Representatives from DRAMM and Biosafe will be there to answer questions. 2 PACs available for those who attend the live event.

July 14, 2020

This is a repeat of last week’s reminder as we’re continuing to see sporadic showers and thunderstorms in the region, it’s important for you to track your risk of summer diseases in apple. NEWA shows high risk for sooty blotch and fly speck infections. If you are seeing apple scab lesions in your orchard, you may also be at risk for secondary infections. Fireblight has hit many hard this year so make sure you have strep on hand in case of hail.

It’s too late to act on codling moth but pretty soon might be a good time to scout for infestation in order to determine if you need to target the second generation. You might think about keeping an untreated sentinel tree or two for this purpose, which get fungicide protection but no insecticide treatments. Time to get your apple maggot traps out to track movement of these flies into your orchard.

Start thinking about brown rot protection in peaches soon.

We have detected SWD in the state. Adult flies as well as a few infested raspberries and blueberry samples. Something in the range of 1-2% infestation. If you are monitoring on your farm, this may be a reminder to check those traps often. We will keep you posted as risk climbs through the season.

For those of you finishing up strawberries, make sure to renovate as soon as harvest is done and don’t wait until all of your plots are finished up. The more growth you can put on this summer, the more cold tolerant over the winter and the stronger that crop will be next year.

Squash vine borer trap numbers are climbing in many areas. Check our online resource for data in your area and protect susceptible cucurbit crops from egg laying.

Tomorrow night Wednesday July 15th 6:30-8:30pm, there will be a zoom workshop on Low-Risk Insecticides and a follow-up webinar Wednesday July 22nd, covering sprayers and foggers for small scale operations.

 

 

 

July 7, 2020

We have accumulated 808 base 50 growing degree days here in Durham.

With sporadic showers in the region, it’s important for you to track your risk of summer diseases in apple. NEWA shows risk climbing up for sooty blotch and fly speck. If you are seeing apple scab lesions in your orchard, you may also be at risk for secondary infections. I’ll also repeat last week’s reminder about fireblight and the potential for extreme weather causing entry wounds for the bacteria that causes fireblight.  If hail does occur – apply strep within 24 hours. If you applied captan less than 10 days prior to the strep application DO NOT add Regulaid/LI 700 to streptomycin for this emergency spray – captan uptake can cause phytotoxicity marks on fruit). If you have not applied captan within that 10 days ago you can add LI700 to streptomycin.

We have detected SWD in the state. Adult flies as well as a few infested raspberries and blueberry samples. Something in the range of 1-2% infestation if any at all. If you are monitoring on your farm, this may be a reminder to check those traps often. We will keep you posted as risk climbs through the season.

We’ve been hearing lots of reports of gummosis affecting young peach fruit, especially in pesticide-free plantings. This clear, gummy ooze is most likely from some kind of piercing-sucking damage done earlier in the season by tarnished plant bug or one of its relatives. Unfortunately, there is nothing to be done about this injury by the time we see the gummosis and, frankly, this would have been difficult to predict or avoid. It’s a challenging pest to manage.

Some upcoming webinars that might be of interest. There will be a disease management workshop for giant pumpkin growers tonight July 7th 6-8pm. Dr. Shahid will discuss some benefits of applying silicon to plants as part of the Plant Health Webinar Series this Thursday July 9th 7-8pm. Next Wednesday July 15th 6:30-8:30pm, there will be a webinar on Low-Risk Insecticides.

 

June 30, 2020

We have accumulated 675 base 50 growing degree days here in Durham.

It’s looking to be a tough year for fireblight, seeing lots and lots of strikes in apple orchard. We had some heavy storms over the weekend in many areas, which reminds us to remind you about the potential for extreme weather causing entry wounds for the bacteria that causes fireblight.  If hail does occur – apply strep within 24 hours. If you applied captan less than 10 days prior to the strep application DO NOT add Regulaid/LI 700 to streptomycin for this emergency spray. Captan uptake can cause phytotoxicity marks on fruit. If you have applied captan more than 10 days ago you can add LI700 to streptomycin.

If you are seeing apple scab lesions in your orchard, this week’s wet weather could mean secondary infections and a need for fungicides. Check your guide.

According to temperature models, codling moth egg laying is likely peaking in many areas. But monitoring data from on-farm is best. Now might be a good time to think about getting those apple maggot traps ready to deploy.

We have detected SWD in the state this week. Just one. So we’re at very low risk of infestation. If you are monitoring on your farm, this may be a reminder to get your traps out or to check those traps more frequently. Now that we’re seeing some rain and humidity, I would expect that population to start growing quickly. Check our weekly scouting reports for trapping data in your area.

 

June 23, 2020

We have accumulated 540 base 50 growing degree days here in Durham. I don’t think I have to tell you its been extremely dry and we’ve been hearing lots of reports of heat damage, sunscald in many crops.

Dry weather means low risk for summer diseases in apple but trees with a rat tail bloom remain at risk for fireblight. If you are signed up for our Fruit&Veg newsletter, you should have gotten an email with more information about this today.

Codling moth’s first generation is flying and eggs are likely beginning to hatch. Potato leafhopper has arrived in our region. You may have noticed tiny white adults flying around when disturbed or the little neon nymphs that run sideways around leaves. These insects cause piercing-sucking feeding, and the injection of toxic saliva in this process results in hopperburn on leaves. This looks like discolored, crinkled, sometimes downward curling leaves. Look for these symptoms and check on the underside of leaves for the leafhoppers to confirm. There’s no hard threshold but younger, delayed, or stunted plants are more susceptible, so keep an eye out and consult your guide to select your plant protection approach.

For those of you who are targeting piercing-sucking insects in treefruit, like mealybug or scale, Movento, Centaur, Assail, and Sivanto are some of the most reliable products for insects in this group. You might think about rotating one of these pricier products (Centaur or Movento) with a neonicotinoid (IRAC 4). The data look good for a Movento/Sivanto rotation but you should be good with any neonic you have on hand, as long as you use the highest labeled rate. Also, I cannot emphasize this enough! Surfactants and high gallonage are really critical for getting materials where they need to be to be to control these tiny bugs. A rate of 50 gallons per acre or lower might be appropriate for getting good coverage on leaves for fungicide applications but rates of 100-250 gpa are more appropriate for sucking insects. The higher the better.

We are trapping BMSB in many areas at numbers that are not high enough to warrant action but are higher than we normally see this time of year. Peaches and apples will be particularly susceptible crops to monitor through the season for this new pest.

I will also add that we are seeing high numbers of squash vine borer for you pumpkin and squash growers. Check out monitoring data to see if numbers are going up in your area and protect those plants before egg laying starts next week.

 

June 16, 2020

We have accumulated 395 base 50 growing degree days here in Durham. For apples, peaches, and pears, fruit is set and folks are thinning. The first strawberries were harvested in southern regions last week.

We are always hesitant to declare primary scab season at its end, but the forecast looks pretty dry so there is little risk for new scab infections. Low risk for sooty blotch and flyspeck. As long as your trees are completely done with bloom, there is low risk for fireblight blossom blight. Now might be a good time to scout for fireblight strikes and to prune them out. Remember to cut at least 12-18” below infected area, leave a stub if you can, rather than cut all the way back to the healthy limb, and to sanitize tools between cuts to avoid spreading the pathogen.

Plum curculio egg-laying should be wrapping up but check for fresh oviposition scars, just in case. San Jose scale crawlers may be on the move now. Codling moth is flying now and leafrollers will start flying soon. When targeting the larvae that will soon follow these flights, consider rotational materials like IRAC 28s, i.e. the diamides (Altacor, Exirel, Verdepryn) or, IRAC 5s, i.e. spinetoram (Delegate), spinosad (Entrust/Blackhawk).

Dry weather means you might be seeing more spider mite (speckled leaves & webbing) and thrips damage on strawberry (bronzing of fruit surface). Scout for thrips by tapping flowers over a white surface. Do this in about 20 locations. Threshold is 2-10 thrips per flower. Brigade and Danitol will provide excellent control but Entrust and Radiant will both provide good control with lower impact on pollinators. No matter what, you should be spraying in the evening to reduce non-target impacts on pollinating insects.  For new strawberry plantings, irrigation is particularly important with all this dry weather. We have not yet captured SWD in New Hampshire so strawberry is not at risk for SWD infestation.

 

June 9, 2020

We have accumulated 306 base 50 growing degree days here in Durham.

We are reaching the end of primary scab season but we're not quite done with risk. You may want to get on a protectant ahead of the rain predicted this week. Blooming trees remain at extremely high risk for fireblight infections so keep that in mind too.

Plum curculio may still be active in the orchard so you may want to continue scouting for fresh oviposition scars. According to weather models, codling moth is likely flying now, out meeting that special someone and starting a family. Crop protection materials are targeted for the subsequent egg hatch, 100 -200 DD from your biofix, or sustained trap capture.

If you are monitoring for San Jose Scale, crawlers are likely to be active now. Now might also be a good time to scout water sprouts, pruning wounds, and scars on the inside of the tree canopy for WAA. A horticultural mineral oil or a non-ionic surfactant (like LI-700 or Regulaid) added to any product you are using for scale or aphids will be helpful in improving spray coverage and particularly critical for these tiny bugs

We are hearing lots of reports of winter damage in small fruit crops. If you are seeing unusual stuff, you might check out Cornell’s new berry diagnostic tool which will walk you through diagnosing a problem on your own.

Our third of the season webinar for commercial orchardists will be tomorrow night June 10 5:30-7:30 p.m. This event will include 2PACs and Tree Fruit Insect Updates from Jaime Piñero (UMass) and Anna Wallingford (UNH), a summary of a recent peach variety trial from Tom Callahan (Adams County Nursery) & George Hamilton (UNH), and a summary of resources for responding to COVID-19 from Jeremy Delisle (UNH).

 

June 2, 2020

We have accumulated 200 base 50 growing degree days here in Durham. Apple and peach have set fruit in the majority of the state and blueberry is blooming in most regions.

We remain at high risk for fireblight infection for varieties that are still blooming. Watch out for that rat-tail bloom!

Apple scab ascospore maturity is also still high. Watch those weather models for infection periods and stay protected.

Plum curculio is active and reports of egg laying have been coming in from many areas. Look for fresh oviposition scars to trigger a control measure and consult your guide for selecting crop protection materials. Continue to scout for those fresh scars over the following weeks and consider a border spray for subsequent controls. New stings are from PC migrating into blocks from wild habitat so a follow up border spray instead of a full spray is normally sufficient. For more on integrating behavioral controls into tree fruit IPM programs, Jaime Pinero (Tree Fruit Entomologist from UMass Extension) will be discussing behavioral controls at our next tree fruit webinar on June 10th 5:30-7:30. 2 PACs. Register at the UNH Extension Website.

For peaches, lesser peach tree borer starts flying around 250-370 (base 50). So if you are monitoring for borers, your traps should be up by now.

While Extension offices remain closed due to concerns regarding COVID-19, we are finding new and creative ways to bring you socially distanced versions for most of our services. We will have a steady stream of really stellar webinars planned through the season and we are still available by phone, text, and email.

May 26, 2020

We have accumulated 96 base 50 growing degree days here in Durham. Apple is blooming in the majority of the state and blueberry is blooming in many southern regions, making blueberries susceptible to mummyberry secondary infections.

Apple scab ascospore maturity is high and the moisture over the weekend means that we are likely coming out of an infection period. Hopefully you were protected with a preventative fungicide applied before the infection event or you should get out there with something with kickback. Consult your guide.

We are also in a period of high risk for fireblight infections, that is blossom blight infections and a bacteriacide should be considered if you haven’t already made your applications last week. Keep an eye on those models for the best information for your location.

See our Extension youtube channel for a tutorial from Cheryl Smith on using NEWA to predict risk for apple scab

and fireblight.

Some comments for strawberry as growth flushes and blossoms open. Tarnished plant bug may be moving in to blooming plantings. Tap flowers over a white surface, like a piece of paper, paper plate, white Frisbee, to see if tiny almost neon-green TPB nymphs jump out.  Threshold is reached if 4 or more flower clusters are infested with nymphs out of 30 clusters sampled evenly from across the field.

To scout for spider mites and aphids, examine the undersides of 5-10 leaves in 5-10 locations around the field. For two-spotted spider mites, an action threshold of 25% of infested leaves is typical, but also consider that this pest tends to break out in hotspots, so spot treatment might provide sufficient control. Avoid the use of pyrethroids for spider mites as these products tend to cause flare ups in mite populations. 

If you are seeing winter injury, you may also be noticing angular leaf spot, lesions on the underside of leaves with a water-soaked appearance. If you are seeing this in a large portions of your planting, but you are also in bloom it will be too late for copper. You might consider oxydate for cleaning up the bacteria that cause this disease.

Some other damage you might encounter as you scout strawberry: Ragged holes in leaves might be an indication of slug feeding. If you notice that the pedicles, or stems, of developing fruit appear clipped off or dying, this might be strawberry clipper. If you notice the entire plant has been removed from its roots, that might be cutworm.

We're hearing some reports of young gypsy moth blowing into fruit crops from surrounding wooded habitat. Little furry caterpillars with red and blue dots on their backs. One or two are not a threat but a whole lot of them might be a problem, so know how to identify gypsy moth caterpillars.

Due to the public health concern caused by the COVID-19 virus and Governor Sununu's recent Executive Order, UNH Extension offices will remain closed through May 31. Extension staff are planning summer and fall programs with the safety of our staff and public in mind.

That being said there are tons of webinars listed on our events page. Visit https://extension.unh.edu/events.

May 19, 2020

We have accumulated 67 base 50 growing degree days here in Durham, 242 in base 43. Southern areas are reporting full bloom in apple and pear, while northern areas are seeing their first blooms opening up. Peaches and nectarines are reaching fruit set in Hollis.

Many areas have reported freezing temperatures recently and may see some freeze injury to fruit blossoms or new growth. For most crops it is best to let plants grow through potential injury but assessing freeze damage in apple blossoms now will be important for making thinning decisions, which happens to be a topic covered in our Tree Fruit webinar tomorrow evening May 20, 5:30-7:30. 2 PACs on offer.

Apple scab ascospore maturity is high in most regions of New Hampshire and this weekend’s rain likely triggered an infection event. If you did not get a preventative fungicide out, get out there with something with some kick-back. Consult the NE Pest Management Guide.

Fireblight blossom blight models start when the first blossom opens so please visit the NEWA website and customize the risk model to suit your location. You can enter data about the severity of fireblight in your neighborhood last year as well as your bloom date. Check those models often through bloom and keep your eye out for rain in the forecast.

Codling moth traps should be out by now and biofixes are being logged in areas south of us. Monitoring on-farm is best but we will be reporting on regional degree day accumulation to estimate egg hatch.  If you are using mating disruption, those dispensers should be out now too.

Due to the public health concern caused by the COVID-19 virus and Governor Sununu's recent Executive Order, UNH Extension offices will remain closed through May 31. Extension staff are planning summer and fall programs with the safety of our staff and public in mind.

In observance of Memorial Day, our weekly morning Open Forum session will be moved to Tuesday morning next week.

May 12, 2020

These cold temperatures have us holding our breath this week, hoping to avoid freeze injury. Cold temperatures delay development of early season infections, like apple scab and fireblight, or brown rot in peaches. However, we are expecting warm weather next week so get ready for things to pick up very fast and check your models often.

Apple scab ascospore maturity is high in southern regions, around 60% in Durham, and reaching moderately high in northern regions. The forecast predicts infection periods by the end of the week so most folks should be getting on a protectant, when they can find a break in this wind.

Fireblight is not a concern this week but something to plan on worrying about as soon as trees start blooming. You may want to double check to make sure you have a bacteriacide on hand if and when you need it.

If you are using mating disruption for codling moth or for trunk borers, make sure to get your dispensers out before bloom.

Due to the public health concern caused by the COVID-19 virus and Governor Sununu's recent Executive Order, UNH Extension offices will remain closed through May 31. Extension staff are planning summer and fall programs with the safety of our staff and public in mind.

The Open Forum session will host a webinar Wednesday, 05/13/2020, 7:00pm - 8:30pm, Best Practices for Pick-Your-Own Operations to Protect Customers and Staff from COVID-19. This will be a good resource making the right choices for your farm and also a good summary of state advisories in northeastern states. You can register to attend these zoom meetings and they will also be recorded if you can’t make it at those times.

Tree Fruit Webinar for Commercial Orchardists Wed, 05/20/2020 5:30pm - 7:30pm. You must pre-register and attend this even during the session for credit, but portions of this meeting will be available as recordings later.

 

May 5, 2020

A beautiful weekend accumulated us a whopping 32 base 50 growing degree days in Durham, 47 in Hollis. Unfortunately it sounds like more cold temperatures are predicted for the rest of the week.

Apple scab ascospore maturity is estimated from 37-49% in our most southern regions but remains low in northern regions, 4% in North Haverill. For southern regions of the state, ascospore maturity is predicted to surpass 50-60% by the end of the week and there is also rain in the forecast, which could mean an infection event and protectant should be applied by the 6th or 7th this week. Be on the lookout for new infection periods next week - It looks like it will be warmer and rainy. Check your closest NEWA station for the best information for your area.

Note: the Hollis NEWA station is down until further notice. Use the Goffstown or Tyngsboro, MA stations as an alternative.

Strawberry: As new growth starts to flush, keep an eye out for spider mites and aphids. Examine the undersides of 5-10 leaves in 5-10 locations around the field. For two-spotted spider mites, an action threshold of 25% of infested leaves is typical, but also consider that this pest tends to break out in hotspots, so spot treatment might provide sufficient control. Avoid the use of pyrethroids for spider mites as these products tend to cause flare ups in mite populations.  

Due to the public health concern caused by the COVID-19 virus and Governor Sununu's recent Executive Order, UNH Extension offices will remain closed through May 31. Extension staff are planning summer and fall programs with the safety of our staff and public in mind.

Some really terrific webinars are slated for our Wednesday evening Open Forum sessions coming up: this week we have a webinar on how to get you farm set up for Adding SNAP/EBT Sales, Wed, 05/06/2020, 7:00pm - 8:00pm. The following Wednesday, 05/13/2020, 7:00pm - 8:30pm, a webinar on Best Practices for Pick-Your-Own Operations to Protect Customers and Staff from COVID-19. This will be a good resource for making the right choices on your farm and also a good summary of state advisories in the region. You can register to attend these zoom meetings live and they will also be recorded if you can’t make it at those times.

Our Tree Fruit Webinar for Commercial Orchardists will be held Wed, 05/20/2020 5:30pm - 7:30pm. You must pre-register and attend the live session of this webinar for pesticide applicator credit, but portions of this meeting will also be available as recordings if that does not apply to you.

 

April 28, 2020

Yikes! Still not a whole lot to report this week with these cold temperatures. Durham has accumulated. Apples are holding steady somewhere between greentip and tight cluster in southern regions of the state.

Despite potential apple scab infection events for many areas this week, ascospore maturity remains low for most, spore discharge will be low (0-3%). If you had fungicide on prior to 4/26 then you are good. If your scab control was good last year, you may be able to wait this one out, otherwise making an application prior to rain on 4/29 may be a good idea. Remember to check the NEWA station closest to you, enter the date of green tip for your orchard for the best information for your site. Unfortunately, the Hollis NEWA station is down until further notice. Use the Goffstown or Tyngsboro, MA stations as an alternative.

PA research suggests bloom is important time for management of bitter rot and possibly Marssonina leaf blotch. If either of these diseases were a problem in your orchard last year, then be sure to include a group 7 fungicide in your pink to bloom-time applications. A protectant (such as mancozeb is suggested as a tank mix). Remember that the protectants alone also provide moderate protection for the fruit rots (bitter, black & white rot).

Here’s a link to a quick disease update and NEWA tutorial delivered by Cheryl Smith at our last webinar/twilight meeting. This recording, as well as an insect pest update and a summary of all the new resources available to farmers responding to the COVID-19 crisis are available at UNH Extension's YouTube channel.

For peaches, bloom is a key time for brown rot control. Wet weather and favorable temps for infection                           predicted through May 2. Refer to the guide for products.

Due to concerns regarding COVID-19, all in-person Extension events have been canceled through May 4th but many scheduled events will be shifted to web versions.

There will be a webinar tomorrow night (4/29) @7:00pm - 8:00pm on What farms and small businesses NEED to know to comply with the Family First Corona Virus Response Act. Don’t Ignore it! You can find the link to register on our extension website:

A big congratulations to George Hamilton, our Food & Agriculture Field Specialist in Hillsborough County, who has just been selected as the 2020 Northeast Region National Association of County Agricultural Agents Hall of Fame recipient. This national association recognizes George’s demonstrated dedication and effective leadership, as an outstanding educator and to outstanding humanitarian service. George could not be more deserving of this honor and we could not be more proud of our colleague and mentor. Drive by his house and honk your horn if you get a chance!

 

April 21, 2020

It has remained pretty chilly! So not too much progress in crop development or degree day accumulations. However, George’s reports from Hollis tell us that Macs are at ½ inch green to tight cluster, peaches are somewhere between ¼ inch green to pink, and apricots are blooming.

Looking at the NEWA apple scab monitoring system, if your greentip date was the first week of April, ascospore maturity remains low – between 5-8%. If you had good control last year and have kept up on your sanitation practices, not much to worry about yet. If you had a scab problem last year, and did not do any sanitation, you may want to apply a preventative product before the rains in the forecast the end of this week. The end of this week might be a good time to apply an oil as well. Check the forecast for freezing temperatures. Remember to check the NEWA station closest to you, enter the date of green tip for your orchard for the best information for your site.

Our colleagues are conducting a survey for cider producers and would also like to hear reports on bud dates for specialty cider cultivars .

Brambles: Now might be a good time to consider anthracnose, if you had problems with anthracnose last year (fruit are withered, dry & seedy, or have shrunken brown drupelets) or you have noticed lots of overwintered lesions (small, rough, sunken cankers) on canes as you pruned. Early season action is best, if you think you have a problem. See the Fruit Guide for more.

Due to concerns regarding COVID-19, all in-person Extension events have been canceled through May 4th but many scheduled events will be shifted to web versions.

In lieu of our scheduled April 22nd twilight meeting we will be offering a Tree Fruit Webinar for Commercial Orchardists with 2 pesticide applicator credits on offer. That's tomorrow night from 5:30 - 7:30 pm. Log in a few minutes early if you're a first time zoom user.

Our statewide Farm Product Map has gone live, but it is not too late to get your farm on this map if your are not already listed. Search “NH Farm Products Map” and filling out an online survey or contact Mary West at 796-2151 for more information.

 

 

April 14, 2020

We are still slow on accumulating base 50 growing degree days – this is the scale most commonly used for tracking insect development. However, looking at base 43 GDD, we have accumulated 70 in Durham, and our Hollis station has accumulated 108 base 43 GDD, where George reported apricots in bloom over the weekend as well as some plums at green tip to tight cluster. George posts photos and updates on his facebook page, if you are interested. Greentip in apple has been reported in some varieties this week in Hollis, Londonderry, Walpole, and Concord.  It looks like kind of chilly weather in the forecast this week, which might slow this progress down a little bit and keep an eye on the forecast for freezing temperature when you are applying dormant oils.

Apple scab spore maturity is 2-5% so, even though the heavy rains we experienced yesterday indicate an infection period, this spore maturity is very low. If you had good control last year and have kept up on your sanitation practices, maybe don’t worry about infection periods until we get to 15% spore maturity. If you had a scab problem last year, and did not do any sanitation, and did not have any protection prior to yesterday’s rain…you may want to put on a material with some kickback. Otherwise scout for infections 9-17 days post-infection (4/22-4/30). Remember to check the NEWA station closest to you, enter the date of green tip for your orchard for the best information for your site.

For blueberry growers with a history of mummy berry – and there were probably a lot of you considering our conditions last year: Mummies that remain on the ground below plants are sources of fungal spores that might cause new infections this year so sanitation practices will be helpful. A 2” layer of new mulch is enough to bury these mummies before budbreak. A 50% Urea application can help burn mummies, but avoid wet areas. Cultivation at budbreak can help disturb/destroy emerging mummies (not useful prior to budbreak. Start your fungicide regime as early as bud swell and scout for apothecia (little brown cup-shaped mushrooms) as the season progresses. Refer to the fruit guide to select crop protection materials.

Due to concerns regarding COVID-19, all in-person Extension events have been canceled through May 4th but many scheduled events will be shifted to web versions.

Webinars:

Reaching Your Customers in Times of Social Distancing will be held during our typical Wednesday evening Farmer Open Forum this week, that’s Wednesday (4/15) at 7 – 8 pm. This webinar will feature members of our Ag Business team as well as several farmers in the region.

Leveraging Grants During Challenging Times this Friday (4/17) at 10:30-11:30 am.

In lieu of our scheduled April 22nd twilight meeting we will be offering a Tree Fruit Webinar for Commercial Orchardists with 2 pesticide applicator credits on offer.

 

April 7, 2020

In Durham, we have accumulated about 2 base 50 growing degree days, 11 in Hollis. Apples are mostly at silver tip. Peach, sweet cherry, and plum buds are moving into bud swell but George has reported some varieties of plum in early tight cluster down in Hollis. Blueberry buds are at bud swell to early green tip depending on the variety.

We’re getting reports of red-banded leafroller flight, as expected. According to accumulated degree days we should be expecting egg-laying for the first generation of pear psylla, if there are any pear growers out there.

Now is the time to get serious about dormant sprays if you haven’t already. Copper sprays need to go on before any green tissue emerges, for fireblight management in apple and for peaches affected by bacterial peach leaf curl last year. Delayed-dormant sprays of petroleum oil (green tip through tight cluster) should be considered for smothering overwintered spider mite eggs and the overwintered life stage of San Jose scale and Comstock mealybug. Large spray volumes are recommended for getting really good coverage and the standard rate is 2 gallons per 100 gallons of water until half-inch green or 1 gallon per 100 gallons of water at tight cluster. The lower concentration lowers risk for phytotoxicity as more new growth emerges. Applying dormant oils with 48 h of freezing temperatures should also be avoided. The forecast looks downright balmy down here in Durham, but keep an eye out on your forecast for freezing temperatures.

For blueberry growers with a history of mummy berry – and there were probably a lot of you considering our conditions last year: Mummies that remain on the ground below plants are sources of fungal spores that might cause new infections this year so sanitation practices will be helpful. A 2” layer of new mulch is enough to bury these mummies before budbreak. A 50% Urea application can help burn mummies, but avoid wet areas. Cultivation at budbreak can help disturb/destroy emerging mummies (not useful prior to budbreak. Start your fungicide regime as early as bud swell and scout for apothecia (little brown cup-shaped mushrooms) as the season progresses. Refer to the fruit guide to select crop protection materials.

UNH Cooperative Extension is developing a statewide New Hampshire Farm Products Map. This tool will make it easy for farmers to update their information on an interactive online map so that consumers can quickly and easily learn where and how to purchase their products in light of the changing situation associated with COVID-19. The map itself will go live next week. Get your farm’s information listed by searchign “NH Farm Products Map” and filling out an online survey. Contact Mary West at 796-2151 for more information.

Due to concerns regarding COVID-19, all in-person Extension events have been canceled through May 4th but many scheduled events will be shifted to web versions.

Extension has also been hosting Open Forums for NH Farmers, which will now be held Mondays at 10am and Wednesdays at 7pm. Search “UNH Farmer Forum” to find details for calling in to ask questions or to hear how other farmers are handling new challenges.

There will be a webinar on Boom Sprayer Calibration next Monday (4/13), 1:00pm-2:30pm, with 1.5 Pesticide Applicator Credits on offer. Contact Carl Majewski at 352-4550 for more information.

There will be a webinar on Reaching Your Customers in Times of Social Distancing, featuring a panel of growers from New England. Wed, 04/15/2020, 7:00pm - 8:00pm

 

March 31, 2020

In Durham, we have not yet accumulated any base 50 growing degree days. However the weather station in Hollis has accumulated 11 degree days and George is reporting bud swell in peach and blueberry, as well as some Zestars that are threatening green tip.

Now is the time to get serious about dormant sprays if you haven’t already. For peaches affected by peach leaf curl last year, copper sprays need to go on before any green tissue immerges. Delayed-dormant sprays of petroleum oil (green tip through tight cluster) should be considered for for smothering overwintered spider mite eggs and the overwintered life stage of San Jose scale and Comstock mealybug. Large spray volumes help with good coverage.

Due to concerns regarding COVID-19, all in-person Extension events have been canceled through May 4th but many scheduled events will be shifted to web versions, including some opportunities for pesticide applicator recertification credits. Extension has also been hosting Open Forums for NH Farmers, which will now be held Mondays at 10am and Wednesdays at 7pm. Search “UNH Farmer Forum” to find details for calling in to ask questions or to hear how other farmers are handling new challenges.